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BRITISH ASTRONOMICAL ASSOCIATION 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE 
1900 




riSH ASTRONOMICAL ASSOCIATION 



TOTA'D 





SOLAR ECLIPSE 




ANIZED, BY 
SOCIATION 
IPSE 

V-XI3 



.R.A.S. 



BRITISH ASTRONOMICAL ASSOCIATION 



THE 



TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE 

1900 



REPORT OF THE EXPEDITIONS ORGANIZED BY 

THE BRITISH ASTRONOMICAL ASSOCIATION 

TO OBSERVE THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE 

OF 1900, MAY 28 



EDITED BY 

E. WALTER MAUNDER, F.R.A.S. 




lonfton 
KNOWLEDGE" OFFICE 

326, HIGH HOLBORN, W.C. 
1901 



. oo 

67 



'"'NERAL 






PRINTED BY 

WITHERBY AND CO. 

326, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON 



CJ? 



PEEFACE. 



THE British Astronomical Association has been now sufficiently 
before the public for its methods and objects no longer to 
require detailed explanation. Founded in October, 1890, it now 
numbers nearly 1200 members, and its meetings are held month 
by month, not only in London, the headquarters of the Asso- 
ciation, but also at the seats of the branches Manchester, 
Glasgow, Edinburgh, Sydney, and Melbourne. A sixth branch 
is now being opened at Birmingham. As its chief purpose 
has been the association of observers for mutual help, and 
their organization for the work of astronomical observation, 
its operations have not been confined to its " sections," dealing 
with the study of the sun, moon, planets, comets, meteors, etc., 
but have extended to the occasional phenomena of astronomy, 
amongst which total eclipses of the sun are the most striking and 
important. Three such events have happened since the Association 
was strong enough to attempt to deal with them, viz., the 
eclipses of 1896, August 9 ; of 1898, January 22 ; and of 1900, 
May 28. A large party proceeded under the auspices of the 
Association to Vadso, in Lapland, to observe the first of the 
three, but their efforts were entirely frustrated on this occasion 
by cloud. Two parties were organized to go to India, to observe 
the second, and were rewarded with complete success; and the 
results of their observations have appeared under the title of 
" The Indian Eclipse, 1898." The present volume is the report 
of the Association on the most recent of these three eclipses, 
which was observed by the members at a great number of 
different stations, in the United States, at sea, in Portugal, in 
Spain, and in Algeria. 

The meetings of the Association are held on the last Wednesday 
of each month, except July, August and September, at Sion 
College, Victoria Embankment, E.G. All enquiries should be 
made of the Assistant Secretary, 26, Martin's Lane, Cannon 
Street, JE.C. 



133449 



CONTENTS 



CHAP. PAGE 

I. INTRODUCTORY ........ 1 

II. WADESBOROUGH, NORTH CAROLINA ... 6 

III. AT SEA 18 

IV. PORTUGAL ........ 26 

V. MID-SPAIN . .31 

VI. MANZANARES . 40 

VII. ELCHE . 48 

VIII. ALGIERS 57 

IX. TIME OBSERVATIONS 75 

DURATION OF TOTALITY AND TIMES OF 

CONTACTS ....... 75 

NOTE ON THE ECLIPSE AT MAZAFRAN CAMP . 83 
NOTE ON THE PROBABLE REASON OF THE OVER- 
ESTIMATE OF THE DURATION OF TOTALITY 
IN THE " NAUTICAL ALMANAC " . . .84 

X. THE CORONA 88 

THE CORONA SEEN OUT OF TOTALITY . . 92 

DRAWINGS OF THE CORONA . . . .93 

XI. THE CORONA AS SEEN IN THE TELESCOPE . .114 
XII. PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CORONA .... 126 

THE CORONA OF 1900 FROM THE PHOTOGRAPHS 126 
LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN DURING TOTALITY 128 
DARK MARKINGS IN THE SOLAR CORONA. . 133 
THE CORONAL EXTENSIONS ON THE PHOTO- 
GRAPHS . . . . . . . 140 

LIST OF PLATES EXPOSED DURING THE PARTIAL 

PHASE 142 

PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE PARTIAL PHASE . 143 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

CHAP. PAGE 

XIII. BRIGHTNESS DURING TOTALITY . . 147 

TWILIGHT ILLUMINATION .... 153 

INTEGRATING PHOTOGRAPHS . .154 

XIV. THE PRISMATIC OPERA-GLASS 156 

XV. THE SHADOW BANDS . ... 164 

XVI. BAILY'S BEADS .... ... 178 

APPEARANCE OP THE Disc OP THE MOON. . 184 

XVIL STARS AND PLANETS VISIBLE DURING THE ECLIPSE 186 

XVIII. METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS .... 192 

XIX. COLOURS ON LAND AND SKY ..... 199 

SHADOWS DURING THE PARTIAL PHASE . . 204 
THE SHADOW OF THE MOON .... 205 

XX. EFFECTS ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS .... 208 

XXI. PLACES OF INTEREST VISITED .... 216 

XXII. SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR 

FUTURE WORK . . . . . 220 

SUMMARY OP RESULTS ..... 220 

SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK . 221 



OF TH?- 

UNIVERSlTY 

Of 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1000, 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

THE course of Total Eclipse Expeditions, like that of true love, 
seems never to run smooth. Of the three which the British 
Astronomical Association has organized, the first was baffled 
by cloud, the second was hampered but not thwarted by plague, 
and the third was hindered but not beaten by war. 

The expedition to Vadso, in 1896, had been so exceedingly 
enjoyable, that in spite of the adverse fortune on the day of 
the eclipse itself, a large number of members of the Association 
had been anxious that one should be arranged on similar lines 
for the eclipse of 1900. The desirability of such an arrange- 
ment, if possible, was obvious, for the association together, on 
a sea voyage of a, large body of observers, offers opportunities 
for organization and co-operation in work, which are not easily 
secured in any other way, and the experiences of 1896 showed 
that a high amount of efficiency could be secured under such 
conditions. The Eclipse Committee, therefore, of the Associa- 
tion, turned their first attention to chartering a steamer which 
should carry the observers and their instruments to Alicante 
and Algiers, calling on its way at Oporto or Lisbon, and at 
Cadiz for the convenience of those observers who wished to 
watch the eclipse from some place in Portugal, or in the interior 
of Spain. Negotiations were accordingly opened with the Royal 
Mail Steam Navigation Company for the chartering of a ship, 
and the Company, which met all the requirements of the Com- 
mittee with the utmost liberality and courtesy, offered their 
newest and best equipped vessel, the " Tagus," for the expedition. 
About 140 applications for berths had been received, and 
arrangements were almost complete when 011 March 5th, the 
Secretary of the Company notified the Committee that both the 
" Tagus,'' and an alternative vessel the " Nile," had been 
requisitioned by the Government as transports for South Africa, 
and that in consequence the Directors were no longer able to 



2 THE TOTAL SOLAR, ECLIPSE, I QOO. 

guarantee a ship to the Association. An effort was then 
made to obtain a steamer from some other quarter, but the 
demands of the war rendered this very difficult, the only vessels 
available being much smaller than the " Tagus." The majority 
of the members who had applied for berths on the" Tagus " 
were unwilling to travel by a much smaller boat, and the project 
of the Association engaging a steamer for the sole use of its 
Members necessarily fell through. 

Under these circumstances it was clear that members would 
in general select their own routes to the zone of totality, and 
accordingly a number of little parties were arranged, travelling 
in different directions, and for the most part without seeking 
any assistance from the Eclipse Committee. Messrs. T. Cook 
and Son, however, approached the Committee to know what 
arrangements would be most likely to meet the needs of astro- 
nomers going out to observe the eclipse, and arranged two 
tours in consequence, the one to Talavera. and Navalmoral, and 
the other to Algiers, both of which were joined by several of 
the members, and were found most convenient by them. 
And the Orient Steamship Company, and the owners of the steam 
yacht " Argonaut," formerly th'e " Norse King," both ran 
excursions intended to help those who wished to watch the great 
sight. 

On the day of the eclipse, then, the members of the 
Association found themselves distributed for some 5000 miles 
along the belt of totality. The first party to be enveloped in 
the flying shadow, as it swept across the earth's surface with a 
speed of 2000 miles an hour, was that accompanying the Rev. 
J. M. Bacon, M.A., F.R.A.S., and which was stationed at 
Wadesborough, North Carolina, U.S.A. Totality was over for 
more than two hours with Mr. Bacon's party before the shadow 
reached the next observer, Col. E. E. Markwick, F.R.A.S., 
whose station was a moving one (if a somewhat Irish expression 
may be allowed), being on the deck of R.M.S. " Austral " of the 
Orient Line. Reaching terra fir ma again, the first town in the 
shadow belt was Ovar, where Mr. G. F. Chambers, F.R.A.S., 
Mr. W. B. Gibbs, F.R.A.S., and Mr. F. Lys Smith had taken 
their place. The Rev. Augustin Morford also observed from 
Ovar, and the Rev. H. P. Slade from Estarreja, six miles further 
south. Crossing the frontier into Spain, the shadow next passed 
over Plasencia, where three little companies of members of 
the Association were staying. The first of these was an Irish 
contingent, nine in number, but two only, Dr. and Mrs. 
A. M. W. Downing, report to this volume, the remaining 
members of the party having come out in connection with the 
Royal Irish Academy and the Royal Society of Dublin, and 
reporting to those bodies. The other two parties in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Plasencia were, one headed by 
Mr. T. Weir, Secretary of the N.W. Branch, and the other 
composed of Mr. T. W. Backhouse and Mr. Irwin Sharp. At 
Navalmoral a considerable party came down by train from 



INTRODUCTORY. 3 

Madrid, arriving on the ground just after the partial phase 
had commenced. Of the work of this party, seventeen in total 
number, including two who stayed at Talavera, Mr. C. T. 
Whitmell, M.A., F.E.A.S., President of the Leeds Astronomical 




PHOF. C. A. YOUNG AT WADESBOKOUGH, X.C. 



Society, has sent in a most careful and well-arranged report. 
Manzanares, in the country of Don Quixote, was occupied by 
three observers, Mr. H. Keatley Moore, Mr. F. Gare, and 
Captain Alfred Carpenter, R.N., D.S.O., F.R.Met.Soc. ; whilst 
the last station in Spain, Elche, was selected by an exceedingly 

B2 



4 THE TOTAL SOLAll ECLIPSE, I QOO. 

well-organised and capable party, eight in number, who report 
through Mr. E. W. Johnson. Crossing the Mediterranean to 
Algeria, the shadow passed over the City of Algiers, where by 
far the largest number of our members were stationed. Of 
these a large party, under the leadership of Mr. E. Walter 
Maunder, made the Hotel de la Regence at once their home 
and their observatory. A smaller party took up their residence 
at the Hotel Continental, in Mustapha Superieur, most of them 
observing the eclipse from the roof of the hotel, but a few 
going to the house of the Vice-Consul for that purpose. S.S. 
" Argonaut " arrived in Algiers on the morning of Sunday, 
May 27th, and its passengers divided into two principal parties, 
the one under the leadership of Colonel A. Burton-Brown, 
R.A., F.R.A.S., encamping on Cemetery Hill, above the town, 
and the other steaming across to Cape Matifou, the N.E. horn 
of the Bay of Algiers, where totality was about three seconds 
longer than in the city itself. The general observations from 
this party were collected and sent in by Mr. H. Krauss Nield. 

Every arrangement must necessarily be exposed to the draw- 
backs of its conditions. Thus in the Lapland Expedition, of 
1896, we had thoroughly appreciated the immense advantages, 
for the purposes of organization, which our being all together, 
on a single vessel, and at the same station, conferred upon us. 
But we also felt that we were running a serious risk, a risk 
which, however, we could not avoid, in thus resting all our 
chances on the weather at a single spot, and our apprehensions 
were realised when the weather at our selected station proved 
hopelessly cloudy. In 1900, we were so widely scattered that we 
had no fear at all of the weather proving bad in every case; but 
as by most unusual good fortune it was everywhere exceedingly 
fine, the disadvantages attending our scattering have been rather 
more apparent. There was no possibility of arranging the whole 
scheme of work on a single plan ; the best that could be done 
was for each separate party to make as efficient a distribution 
of the observations within their reach as they could. This was 
done, and in several instances with most conspicuous ability 
and success, but it was quite out of the question to arrange a 
common programme for the whole. It resulted, therefore, 
that there was necessarily a great deal of repetition between 
various reports, and it was impossible to print these as they 
stood, excellent though they were as records of the work of the 
separate stations. It has been, therefore, thought well, whilst 
giving the actual narratives of the several parties, one by one, 
to combine their results under the various lines of work. 

In the previous Eclipse report of the Association "The 
Indian Eclipse, 1898 " a short historical sketch was given of the 
principal lines of eclipse research ; there is no need, therefore, to 
repeat these facts in the present volume. 

It is interesting to remark that beside the members who 
have contributed to this report, not a few of the most distin- 
guished members of the Association observed the eclipse of 



INTRODUCTORY. O 

1900 in connection with the expeditions of other" learned bodies. 
Without giving an exhaustive list, we may mention Professors 
Barnaa-d, Burckhalter, Hale, Pickering and Young amongst 
American astronomers; Mr. F. W. Dyson at Ovar; the Irish 
astronomers, Sir Howard Grubb, Dr. A. A. Kambaut, and Mr. 
W. E. Wilson, at Plasencia; at Santa Pola, Dr. Kalph 
Copeland, Mr. A. Fowler, and Mr. T. Heath; in Algeria, Herr 
Archenhold, Herr Leo Brenner, Mr. John Evershed, Major 
Kingsley Foster, Mr. H: F. Newall, Prof. P. Tacchini, Prof. 
H. H. Turner, and Mr. W. H. Wesley. 

One feature of our various eclipse expeditions, a feature 
common, to them all, it is impossible to pass over without 
recognition. They took place at a time when there was not a 
little irritation and stress between Great Britain and many 
other nations. The Continental Press in general, and to a consider- 
able extent that of America also, was full of unfriendly 
remarks upon us; nor were the replies of our own newspapers 
always above criticism. If we had formed a,n opinion of the 
state of international feeling from these and similar political 
writings, we should have concluded that we had little to expect 
in the way of assistance or kindness from those with whom 
our expeditions would bring us into contact. But our actual 
experience was the very reverse of this. The record of our 
Members at each and every station, whether it was in the 
United States, in Portugal, Spain, or in the French colony of 
Algeria, was that they received in every case the fullest and 
most considerate courtesy; indeed, much more than that, the 
most liberal and generous help. To our many friends, there- 
fore, official and private, in these different lands to whom 
we are so deeply indebted, we offer our wannest remembrances, 
and our most grateful acknowledgments of their kindness. 



CHAPTER II. 

WADESBOROUGH, NORTH CAROLINA* 

OUR good fortune began with our outward bound boat. It was 
something to be on board the largest ship afloat in all the world, 
two only excepted, to have a deck to walk on approximately 
a furlong in length ; to have as a floating home the finest vessel 
that has ever entered London water, and perhaps the steadiest 
that has ever crossed the Atlantic. Such was the " Minneapolis," 
in which we were allotted the first pick of cabins by priority 
of booking. And here again was something to be proud of 
viz., that a party of amateur astronomers, seven in all, had been 
fired with zeal enough to anticipate the inevitable crush that 
the Paris Exhibition would cause, and to bespeak berths out and 
home again many months ahead, to map out a journey of 
some 9,000 miles extending over more than seven weeks, and 
all merely to gain somewhat better conditions for witnessing 
an Eclipse which all other European astronomers were content 
to obsei've from their own side of the Atlantic. 

But an increased probability of clear sky, the gain of 20 or 
30 seconds in the duration of totality, and greater altitude were 
in our case strong temptations, and so it came about that the 
early days of May saw us in the full enjoyment of an ideal 
voyage, discussing and preparing for the work before us through 
long luxurious days, and at night under the broad moon 
watching the prow ploughing its silent path through the black 
water on into the west. 

But at last there came a check; somewhere south of New- 
foundland, where we entered the track of icebergs and where 
soundings showed in place of mud a. shifting bed of sand. Here 
we entered fog, deep and darkening fog, so that ere Sandy Hook 
was reached, we had to drop anchor and lay to till better times 
should come. 

It was then we began to fairly realise the game of hazard we 
were playing. There were but nine clear days before the 
Eclipse, in which brief space we should have to convey ourselves 
and our heavy instruments 1,000 miles over land to a retired 
spot far down in the Southern States a,nd virtually unknown 
to the world at large. Moreover we were made to feel that our 
mission was, as far as any practical work was concerned, doomed 

* By the Rev. J. M. BACOX, M.A., F.E.A.S. 
6 



WADESBOROUGH, NORTH CAROLINA. V 

to complete failure if during the critical 90 seconds of time 
the sun should be covered with but a thin veil of such vapour as 
was now blotting out the sky. 

Fogs, however, are often subservient to a certain magic 
influence, and this proved to be so in our case. Some sudden 
change presently took place in atmospheric conditions. The 
slight breeze went about and intruded itself unexpectedly 
through an opposite porthole. Someone, supposed for the 
moment to have lost his senses, cried that he had caught a 
glimpse of land, and then all in five minutes a broad stretch 
of the American coast was outlined ahead, and the steam 
capstan was already at work grinding up the anchor. 

An hour later all our bulky instrument cases save one of which 
more anon were ranged along the Custom House stage where 
an altercation took place which the officials concerned would 
have done well to have dispensed with. By a special act of 
courtesy on the part of the U.S. Government I was possessed 
of authority to have all scientific instruments freed of the 
Customs ; yet someone in office that afternoon insisted that 
the cases should be opened and scrutinised in the usual manner. 
This caused a delay of some precious hours, and also a visit to 
the British Consul on Monday morning, when after three hours 
of hard work in interviewing officers, making statements and 
getting signatures I repaired accompanied by the Vice-Cons ul 
himself to the obdurate Custom House agent, only to find that 
that official had come to a better frame of mind and had passed 
everything without inspection that morning by break of day. 

But the railway authorities more than made up for the un- 
warrantable annoyance and delay caused by the ministers of 
red tape. With frank and ready generosity, for which I have 
no adequate words of praise, the Pennsylvania Railway Com- 
pany regarded us in the light of a scientific party engaged on 
a duly recognised mission. As such we were to be privileged 
individuals and worthy cf being accorded that courtesy and 
kindly reception which nowhere on the face of the globe can 
be shown with greater open-handedness than in America. 

I record it with equal gratification and gratitude that by 
nightfall of the second working day after landing, my daughter 
and myself, as pioneers, were berthed on the fastest train going 
south with the whole of our heavy freight on board, and the 
whole of it booked free of all charge whatsoever right to our 
destination in far N. Carolina. 

Never shall I forget the luxurious feeling of relief and refresh- 
ment as the night express steamed away from New Jersey, and, 
gathering speed, caught the cool night wind through the 
sleeping fragrant country. 

At Washington we were joined by our chief colleague, Mr. 
Nevil Maskelyne, F.R.A.S., to whom a terrible mischance had 
occurred. He was the designer of the kinematograph telescope, 
the film of which had been mysteriously stolen when, in my 



8 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 



custody at the last eclipse in India, and now by another 
strange fatality the optical part of the same instrument was 
missing, having by an oversight never been shipped in London, 
and thus a second time this novel instrument seemed for the 
moment doomed to failure. 

But our unrivalled mechanician, whose genius is so well known 
to every frequenter of the Egyptian Hall, had already deter- 
mined on the Herculean task of manufacturing an adequate 
telescope and fittings from selected photographic lenses, and of 
completing the work within the three or four working days that 



Mr. and Mrs. Maskelyne. 



Miss Bacon. 



Mr. Dixon. 




Miss Woolston. Miss Dixon Kev. J. M. Bacon. 

13. A. A. PAKTY AT LUNCH, KLOXUYKE HOTEL, WADESBOHOUGII. 

at most would be at his disposal. The endeavour was like that 
of a sailor attempting single-handed to rig a jury mast under 
stress of weather when his main mast had gone by the board; 
but our friend faced it, and so, having caught us up, was hurry- 
ing down to the front with a jaded look, in sooth, but with 
set purpose in his eye. 

That night I saw a strange sight. We were running through low 
lying forest land in Southern Virginia, already 800 miles nearer 
the Equator, where the air had grown palpably hotter and more 
sultry, and multitudes of frogs were croaking round with a 
strange rattle in their throats. The stars were beginning to 
grow bright and many, when suddenly in the sky from about 






WADESBOROUGH, XORTH CAROLINA. 



9 



the region of Scorpio I saw a burst of meteors twisting in 
erratic courses much as I had seen them in fewer numbers on a 
memorable occasion from a lofty balloon in the early morning 
of the last Leonid shower. I shouted this intelligence aloud 
that all the Pullman car might hear, meeting, however, only with 
a rebuke from our dusky and amused conductor, " Dem are 
lightning bugs, sar !'' Of course they were, but I must be held 
blameless, for this was the first time that I had seen a fire-fly. 

At six o'clo'ck on the morning of the second day our train 
pulled up at our destination, a little forest clearing, where there 
was a modest range of wooden sheds. There, however, was 
nothing to indicate that we had arrived at a spot of any conse- 
quence, and yet in truth this was the railway station of 




1?. A. A. C'AMT, WAIXESUOKOVUH, X.C. 

Wadesborough, N.C., a little township which, for the time being, 
was exalted to one of high importance in all the States, and this 
fact was soon impressed upon us. A steady climb of a mile 
by pine woods and cotton fields now brought us to our hotel, 
where we found ample accommodation reserved for all our party 
and breakfast already waiting. 

Half-an-hour later we received a personal visit from Professor 
Young, and then at last we began to realise the extent of our 
good fortune, and how much true kindness and hospitality was 
being lavished upon us. On the opposite side of the little street, 
drawn up under the shade of the wooden houses, was a pair- 
horse carriage, which by an act of extreme generosity on the 
part of the residents had been engaged to be at our disposal 
through the whole of our stay. For the rest, Professor Young 
assured us we should learn more if we came to his camp after 



10 THE TOTAL SOLAH ECLIPSE, 1900. 

breakfast. And this was certainly so. We learned that every- 
thing had been thought out by the Professor himself for our 
benefit and comfort ; that a portion of his own specially selected 
site had been reserved for us, and that a carpenter was already 
in attendance to receive our instructions for the erection of a 
suitable shed. 

I shall have to say so much more about Professor Young 
before I have done that I had better give some description of 
his observing station in which we found him already fairly 
established. This occupied the highest ground around, being 
a field well removed from habitations, and open to the south- 
west, in which direction an uninterrupted view was obtained 
over a broad valley sloping upwards to the distant sky-line. 
A substantial wooden building had been erected for photo- 
graphic purposes and to house the larger instruments brought 
from the Princeton Observatory, while the rest of the extensive 
equipment was ranged without on the southern front. It was 
all a fair sample of what American astronomers could and would 
do on their own soil, but we were to see more. 

A quarter of a mile away in another enclosure was the station 
occupied by the chiefs of the Smithsonian and Yerkes Obser- 
vatories. Professor Langley had not yet arrived, but Professors 
Barnard, Hale, Abbot and others had for a long while been at 
work on preparations which were being carried out on a giant 
scale, and it was easy to credit, what Professor Young claimed, 
that no such equipment had ever been brought together at any 
one station to serve in the observation of a Total Solar Eclipse. 
They do things smartly in America. On arriving at Wades- 
borough Station we found that, notwithstanding the rapidity with 
which we had made our long journey, our heavy instruments 
had already arrived before us, and now it was our only care 
that they should be conveyed promptly up the long slope that 
led to our chosen ground. How would it be done ? we asked, 
for our packages were awkward and heavy. At this our car- 
penter stepped forward and asked if they were more than seven 
tons, for he had already conveyed that weight of precious 
instruments for the American party. When I replied that they 
were less than seven cwt., our friend promised that they should 
bs delivered in half-an-hour, and he was as good as his word. 
And next, by some magic not surpassed in the days of Aladdin, 
our observing hut sprang into existence while our backs were 
turned, and we had only, so we thought, to knock the lids off 
our cases and set all shipshape. 

But in this we were wrong. We had forgotten to reckon with 
the heat. It was late May in the Southern States, and the sun, 
in lat. 35 N., blazed down in a way we dreamed not of. Pro- 
fessor Young warned us that we should not at once get accus- 
tomed to the heat, adding for our comfort that several out of 
the various camps had already knocked up and been in the 
doctor's hands. 




PRINCETON OBSERVATORY CAMP, \VADESBOitorGir, Jf.C. 




YKHKKS OBSERVATORY CAMP, WADESBOROUGH, N.C. 



WADESBOROUGH, NORTH CAROLINA. 13 

But in spite of little twilight there were daylight hours early 
and late when work could and did get on apace, and when two 
days later the rest of the party joined us preparations were 
fairly advanced. Mr. N. Maskelyne was still slaving at his 
stupendous task which was eventually crowned with complete 
success. Mrs. Maskelyne kindly took over the management of 
a clock-driven actinometer which at my desire her husband 
had designed. Miss Woolston elected to confine her attention 
to photographing the Corona, Miss Dixon took charge of the 
opera glass spectroscope, the same instrument that she had used 
at the eclipse at Buxar, Mr. G. Dixon, whose skill as an operator 
is second to none, essayed single handed to take photographs 
of the Corona with a three inch o.g. by Dollond, and with a 
tele-photo camera. My daughter was provided with a battery 
of four cameras, with which she proposed to photograph the 
outer extensions, using Dallmeyer and other lenses ranging from 
f/6 to fjl 2. I myself was using the same telescopic camera of 
4.1 o.g. with which my son had successfully photographed the 
inner Corona at Buxar. Other work of a minor character was 
also undertaken, and the day before the Eclipse our camp 
unexpectedly received the addition of Mr. Hadden, an American 
member of the B.A.A., using a three inch equatorial refractor. 

But our occupation was not all work. Recreation and social 
intercourse claimed their share. All the principal residents not 
only called but seemed to vie one with another in showing all 
hospitality and loading us with every kindness. Special enter- 
tainments were got up among the ladies, and prospective 
pic-nics and other convivial gatherings were arranged for our 
benefit. 

In acknowledgment of these many acts of kindness the astro- 
nomical party generally, as visitors, agreed on inviting all the 
residents to a gathering in the Opera House, at which the 
entertainment should be an astronomical lecture followed by 
speeches from the platform by representatives of the various 
camps. This entertainment mooted at a late period of our stay 
was only finally decided on during the morning preceding the 
Eclipse, so that it became necessary that it should take place 
that same evening. But this is notice enough for a successful 
gathering among the hearty genial and united Southerners. 
Judsre Bennett, principal among the inhabitants of Wadesboro', 
kindly consented to preside, and then the telephone was put 
in requisition, with the result that at 8 p.m. the hall was filled 
to overflowing with a representative and enthusiastic audience. 
It is needless to say that the lecture improvised by Professor 
Young was one of great ability and interest, after which Judge 
Bennett and Professor Hale addressed the meeting, and it fell 
to mv own lot to speak on behalf of the English visitors. 

Of Wadesboro' itself little need be said. It possesses 2000 souls 
and is a thoroughly typical township of the Southern States, 
high and healthy, with clean and busy streets, and picturesque 



14 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

houses mostly wooden. The coloured natives are cheery, good- 
natured willing folk, and as servants most attentive and 
obliging. Some too would seem to relish the opportunity of 
waiting on English visitors, the more so when they chance to 
be members of an Eclipse party, or (in their vernacular) 
" Clippers." The dusky but excellent chamber-maid who waited 
on the ladies of our party, was overheard in enthusiastic colloquy 
in the passage with a bare-footed laundress ; at length, incapable 
of repressing her feelings, she threw open the bed-room door 
exclaiming, "See my ladies! Aren't they sweet!" 

The work of the Eclipse day and its results are sufficiently 
treated of elsewhere. Weather conditions were wholly in our 




CAMP OF THE SMITHSOMAX INSTITUTE, WADESBOUOUGH, N.C. 



favour; a sky brilliantly clear, and a steady atmosphere with 
almost entire absence of wind. Special trains from far afield 
arriving early brought an immense concourse of visitors, and 
every vantage ground became occupied with crowds of eager 
observers. The admirable arrangements, however, made by 
Professor Young secured perfect privacy to ourselves, and 
barring slight accidents which did not affect the general success 
all things worked smoothly and well. In spite of our extended 
horizon the shadow was not seen by ourselves either on earth 
or sky, nor had we leisure to look for shadow bands. The 
Coronium line was also missed, but other observations were 
satisfactory, and the photographic results very successful. The 
total phase appeared lighter even than at Buxar, and this may 
in part account for the absence of any prolonged extensions 



WADESBOROrGH, NORTH CAROLINA. 



15 



as observed or photographed. Mercury and Venus were of 
course well seen, but looking for visible stars did not enter into 
our programme. 

The Eclipse over, the work of dismantling the various 
observatories went on with amazing expedition. Farewells, 
many and hearty, were exchanged, and in two days we were once 
again pursuing our travels intent on seeing as much as could 
be seen of the New World in the space of three weeks. 

But our experiences from the astronomical point of view 
were not yet ended. Yielding to an invitation urged upon 
us with unexampled kindness by Professor Barnard, our whole 




MR. HAUDEX, F.R.A.S., WADESBOROVGK, X.C. 



party, Miss Dixon only excepted, proceeded to Williams's 
Bay, where under the Professor's hospitable roof we enjoyed 
two days, perhaps the happiest of all we spent in America. 
It might be difficult to decide whether, out of all that impressed 
us most in our travels, Niagara must stand first or the Yerkes 
Observatory. Somehow at night the sight of the big dome 
outlined against the stars appealed to one somewhat as did the 
Taj at Agra, perhaps arousing kindred feelings. 

But our view of the Yerkes Observatory was not restricted 
to the outside. For one very precious hour we were privileged 
to see through the great telescope some of the wonders that 
its peerless glass reveals, objects to see and dream of ever 



16 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 



after, nebula; and clusters ending up with Messier 13. Perhaps 
what strikes the visitor most about the great observatory is its 
completeness the many departments where provision is made 




PROF. AM) illiS. r.ARNAKI) AT 1IO5IK, AVlLLIAM's 1JAV, WISCONSIN. 



for experimental and mechanical work of all kinds ; the photo- 
graphic rooms, the library, the laboratories and workshops, and, 
not least, the power house with its monster engines whose might 
is so wondrously manifested about the telescope. At the touch 




WADESBOROTJGH, NORTH CAROLINA. 17 

of a handle the huge dome starts whirring round. Again, a 
lever is depressed, and, as with a convulsion of nature the entire 
floor, ninety feet across, with all upon it, goes mounting 
skyward. 

All this will long dwell in our recollection, but our most abiding 
memory will be of the home where at the hands of Professor 
Barnard and his charming English wife we learned all that true 
Southern hospitality means. Here is an ideal retreat, for one 
whose whole life is given up to his work; a luxuriant garden 
of Nature's own planting, where the sumac is the undergrowth, 
and flowers, prized in English borders, grow as weeds. On the one 
side stretches the wide reach of Big Foot Prairie, on the other, 
far below, lie the blue waters of Lake Geneva. I cannot recall 
the scene without picturing a calm, clear evening with the light 
of the after-glow already fading in the west, and in the distance 
the retreating figure of a man, nearing middle life, yet hurrying 
with all the activity of vigorous youth across the grass to his long 
night's labour. 

J. M. BACON. 



CHAPTER III. 

AT SEA. * 

IT was with some little trepidation that I decided on viewing 
the total eclipse of the sun from the deck of the R.M.S. 
" Austral " of the Orient line, which was duly advertised to sail 
from Plymouth on the 26th May, and to be so navigated as to 
be on the centre line of the shadow track at the right time. 
The arguments inducing hesitation, that is to say, " con," were : 
chance of delay in the ship's getting away ; chance of fog or 
rough weather while on the voyage which might cause delay ; 
chance of a slight error in the navigation of the ship ; and, 
finally, chance of a cloudy sky at a critical time. The last 
objection of course applies equally to terra firma. I do not add 
impossibility of using a telescope on board ship as an argument 
against going, as I purposed viewing the eclipse in its entirety, 
by means of naked eye or binocular only. 

On the other hand, the arguments " pro," or in favour of 
going, were : an assurance from the Orient Company that, 
barring accidents or fog, they saw no difficulty whatever in carry- 
ing out their programme ; the comfort of observing from the 
splendid promenade deck of a liner ; the facility with which I 
could embark at Plymouth within an hour from my own house ; 
an invitation from a brother officer to spend a few days at 
Gibraltar, where I should await the next steamer back to 
England ; and, finally, I may add, economy, as compared with 
the cost of a trip overland to Ovar, Algiers, or other points on 
terra firm a. 

My wife thought I was embarking on a " wild goose chase," 
but even this form of sport sometimes results in success. So I 
made up my mind to risk it, as even if I saw nothing, a short 
sea trip after a long spell of worrying official duties would do 
one no harm, to say the least of it. 

The complete success of my trip, as it turns out, has, I think, 
justified me in my venture, for " nothing succeeds like success," 
and I may be congratulated on the good luck and management 
which attended the voyage. My chief object was to see as much 
as I could of the Corona in a good binocular, without encum- 
brance from any routine work whatsoever. 

*By COLONEL E. E. MARKWICK, F.K.A.S. 

13 



AT SEA. 19 

The steamer arrived well up to time in Plymouth Sound, 
and I embarked at 2 p.m. under a lovely sky, when the surround- 
ings of the vicinity, Mount Edgcumbe, Staddon Heights, etc., 
looked their very best in their delicate spring greenery. 

Before leaving, I obtained a copy of the excellent " Nautical 
Almanac Circular, No. 17," from which I deduced the circum- 
stances of the eclipse for the position : 

Long. W. 9 27' 
Lat. N. 41 3' 

these being the co-ordinates of the point at which I assumed 
the ship's course, as ordinarily taken, off the coast of Portugal, 
would intersect the centre line of totality. I then calculated 
the times of the different phases from the formulae given at p. 8 
of the above mentioned circular. Also I got them graphically 
from the map therein given, taking the data for the positions : 
(1) Near Ovar, and (2) S.W. of Talavera de la Reina, and by 
rule of three working them for (3), the ship's position. Taking 
the mean of these results, which agreed to a minute, I got the 
following : 

b. in. s. 

Eclipse begins 2 41 24 

Totality 4 24 

ends 4 1 55 G.M.T. 

Eclipse ... 5 12 21 

Duration of totality ... 1 31 

On arriving on board I soon found that only one other amateur 
astronomer had come by the ship, namely, Mr. W. Broadbent, 
of Huddersfield, a member of our Association. Under the free- 
masonry of astronomy we became at once fast friends. Such is 
the power and influence exercised by the B.A.A. and its excellent 
Journal, for I had never seen him before. 

My business now was to interview our courteous and able 
commander, Capt. A. J. Goad. I found we agreed exactly as to 
the longitude of our point of observation, and he at once accepted 
my figures for the latitude. I subsequently found from the 
rigorous positions given at p. 3 of the " Circular " for G.M.T. 
4h. Om. and 4h. 2m. that the latitude given above ought to be 
increased by perhaps 1^', but the correction was not applied, I 
believe, and the ship was worked to the position given above, 
which could not in any case have been more than 1| miles out. 
I also communicated to the captain the time of the eclipse as 
above worked out, as he had no accurate data on this point. 

Soon after leaving Plymouth the sky became overcast, and we 
passed through a fog in the night, when sleep was rendered im- 
possible for a time by the sounding of our fog horn, and the 
reply from another boat not far off. Up to then the chances 
looked unfavourable; next day, however, we gradually worked 
out of the fog, and the sky later on in the day lifted and gave 
a good promise for the morrow. 

c2 



20 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

The 28th turned out a really " perfect " day, both in a meteoro- 
logical and astronomical sense; the sky deep blue, with a few 
" mare's tail " clouds about, all of which kept near the horizon, 
as if fearing to insult his majesty the God of Day, by inter- 
fering in the least with our vision of him. The sea was " deeply, 
darkly, beautifully " blue, and more, so steady, that we were on 
an even keel, and there really seemed little or no excuse for 
anyone to be ill. During the whole of the eclipse the sky in 
the immediate vicinity of the sun was perfectly clear of the 
slightest trace of cloud or mist, and, therefore, it was seen under 
the best possible conditions. 

In the morning we passed the time by looking at Venus in the 
eastern sky. I found a tube formed by rolling up a number of 
" Knowledge," an excellent guide to others in catching the tiny 
white speck. The ship was so steady, I held this tube against 
a stanchion so that others could see the Planet " in the centre 
of the field " (rather approximately). The Orient Company 
had thoughtfully provided a considerable number of very con- 
veniently sized pieces of good thick plate glass about 
2 in. x 3 in., and these were all duly " smoked " and distributed 
I know of no piece of astronomical apparatus, however com- 
plicated it be, that fulfils its purpose better than the time- 
honoured " smoked glass." The very inequality in the distri- 
bution of the carbon on its surface allows a person to vary the 
brightness (or dulness) of the solar image exactly to his or her 
liking, and also (if necessary) to the varying state of transparency 
of the sky. 

My apparatus was simple ; in addition to my eyes I had one 
of the pieces of glass aforesaid, a dark solar eyepiece cap (be- 
longing to a telescope) slightly smoked, one binocular magnifying 
5 diameters with eyepieces smoked inside, another good binocular 
power about six, in its natural clear state, a deck watch, 5s. slow 
on G.M.T., note book and pencil. These were laid out on a 
ti-avelling rug secured to one of the ship's seats on the open 
forward part of the promenade deck. 

A gentleman (not of the B.A.A.) intended to take some photo- 
graphs with a hand camera, and I agreed to call out " Now " in 
a loud tone just when totality had begun, so that he should not 
spoil a plate by beginning too soon. Another shipboard acquaint^ 
ance promised to look on the deck for shadow bands, and he 
did so, but saw nothing of them. 

As far as I could judge, the first indentation in the sun's limb 
was noted (just at the calculated point) almost exactly at the 
time given above. I soon discarded my smoked binocular and 
piece of glass for the solar cap, which, slightly smoked, gave me 
a perfectly sharp clear image of the sun, of a cool grey-green 
tint, but of course not magnified. 

When we got to the time that half the sun's diameter should 
have been obscured, my friend of the shadow bands observed 
that he thought I was " too soon with my figures," as the half 



AT SEA. 



21 



diameter did not look quite obscured. This is an optical 
illusion, as was at once seen by a rough diagram drawn by the 
aid of a penny in my note book, and which I reproduce here, 
drawn more carefully to scale. Through irradiation and the 
peculiar shape of the crescent, it looks as if the dark body ought 
to be a little further upwards to the left, to bisect the solar 
diameter. Such is not the case, and, as it turned out, my figures 
for totality agreed within a few seconds with the observed times. 
Hence the above remark does not seem to have been justified. 

So things went on, until the crescent got thinner and thinner, 
and when the last ray of sunlight flashed out, I called out 




SUN'S DIAMETER HALF OBSCURED. 

Br AN OPTICAL ILLUSION THE OBSCURED PART LOOKS LES* THAN 
TUE BRIGHT. 



" Now," and seized the clear binoculars. How can I describe 
what I saw, when it was so really celestial, and the time so 
short? 

Very roughly the Corona was like a band or ribbon of light, 
stretching from left of up to right of down, about the same width 
as the sun's diameter, with comparatively tiny aigrettes shooting 
out at the solar poles. The band extended in the direction of 
the sun's equator, as far as I could judge from a rough sketch 
which I made a few minutes after totality was over. This sketch 
was made without a knowledge of the position of the sun's 
equator. At a glance I saw it corresponded very fairly indeed 
with the type predicted at p. 86 of the Eclipse Volume of the 
B.A.A. But the detail which my glass showed me was really 



22 THE TOTAL SOL ATI ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

too entrancing. I cannot of course remember it all, or even any 
part accurately. What struck me most was an exquisitely 
shaped ray proceeding from the N.W. limb, and forming the 
principal N. boundary of the W. extension of the Corona. This 
was shaped like the boundary of one side of a hyacinth bulb, or 
an old-fashioned salad oil flask of glass. From the S.W. limb 
proceeded another ray, not quite so marked, but of the same 
general hyacinth bulb shape, forming the S. boundary of the 
W. extension. These two rays with the included Corona formed, 
roughly, the figure of the flame issuing from a grenade, worn as 
a badge by officers of the Royal Artillery. The rays of the E. 
extension seemed straighter generally, and did not exhibit at all 
so markedly the bulb-like form. Hence the " synclinal " groups 
of Ranyard would appear to have been more in evidence on the 
W. extension. 

The short aigrettes or jets of the poles were very pretty, and 
with more time one could easily have located the solar poles 
with accuracy, as they divided in different directions over them, 
just as a man's hair does off his " parting," when parted in the 
middle of the head. 

There was a brilliant prominence, principally white, with a 
touch of pink on the lower limb, that is, a little S. of the W. 
point. There were also smaller prominences which I had no time 
to note specially, but speaking generally the light all round the 
moon's limb was so bright I could hardly bear it in the binocular. 

A wealth of detail was apparent all through the Corona, wisps 
and rays interlacing, which would have occupied one, say, a 
couple of hours, to draw carefully. Its general effect was far 
more tenuous and delicate than what I was expecting from the 
pictures and photographs I have seen. The general hue was pure 
white or greyish white ; the sky was blue all round the sun, and 
the effect of the silvery Corona projected on it, was beyond any- 
one to describe. .1 can only say it seemed to me what angels' 
wings will be like. The time of totality seemed to me less than 
H minutes, but one quite loses count of time, in looking at one 
of the Arcana of the Creator from which the veil is withdrawn 
for a few minutes. The sunlight flashed out, and the exquisite 
vision passed, a vision which will be treasured up in the 
writer's memory as long as he is permitted to consider the 
heavens. 

As my intention was to be a spectator rather than an observer, 
I did not note by the watch how long totality really lasted. 

During totality I withdrew my eyes from the binocular to 
study the effect of the eclipse on the sea. It looked a dark 
indigo, or indigo grey, showing up very sharp on the horizon 
against the sky. The latter for some degrees above the horizon 
was to me a tawny yellow, with the " mare's tail " clouds inclin- 
ing to ruddy. Othei-s called the tint of the sky lemon yellow, but 
to me it was distinctly warmer and richer more approaching 
to Indian yellow. A gentleman who was watching for the 



AT SEA. 



23 



shadow bands said that he observed the sea to change suddenly 
to a dark indigo a moment or so before totality. 

I attempted to note the shadow advancing over the sea, but 
my attention was principally directed to watch the thinning 
crescent of the solar light, and I did not see anything of it. 




PROMENADE DECK OF S.S. " AUSTRAL" DURING THE PARTIAL PHASE. 



Neither did my friend just referred to above. It enveloped us 
suddenly without any direct visible evidence of its approach. 

Mercury to the right and just below the sun was a blazing 
star ; quite bearing out his character as I have often seen him 
in tropical or semi-tropical climes. Aldebaran and Sirius were 
seen by some on board, but I did not notice them, my attention 
being pretty well ri vetted on the sun. 

I have never seen a total eclipse before, but I should imagine 



24 THE TOTAL SOLATl ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

that this was a, very bright one ; that is, supposing the general 
illumination within the shadow does vary at different eclipses. 
However, a gentleman said he had great difficulty in making out 
the labels on his photographic plates during totality. 

During the increasing and diminishing phases the bright 
crescents, or images of the sun, were studied on the deck, by 
crossing the fingers of the two hands, and allowing the sunlight 
to pass through the interstices. It was a curious and pretty 
effect, but was seen much better on a sheet of paper, the sun's 
image being thrown through a pinhole in another sheet. The 
sharpness and clearness of the tiny crescent was remarkable. 

The temperature during the eclipse was observed to fall from 
66 to 63 Fahr. The instrument used was not a very accurate 
one, but I should not suppose there would be an error of more 
than one degree in this determination. 

I made the following rough notes: At 32m. before totality 
there was a noticeable diminution in the light generally on the 
sea ; also the temperature was thought cooler. 

At 28m. before, it was distinctly cooler. 

At 26m. before, the sea was getting a dusky purple tint. 

At 23m. before, the crescent looked " uncanny." 

At 22m. before, Venus easily seen. 

At 18m. before, the sky looked a greyish blue, and the sea 
greenish grey, or greyish blue, according to different observers. 

At 6m. before, the sky was lurid all round. 

Totality was noted as over at 4h. 2m. 20s. G.M.T., it having 
ceased some seconds before. 

Two or three gentlemen on board took photographs with hand 
cameras, and the instructions and information contained in the 
Eclipse Volume (taken by the writer as likely to be of use for 
reference, and much studied by him) gave them a good idea of 
what exposure to give, as they were not well versed in astrono- 
mical photography. 

A lady on board, who had witnessed the eclipse of 1896 in 
Norway, informed me she was much disappointed with the 
Corona this time, as compared with what she had seen in 
Norway. It was neither so large nor so bright. This no doubt 
was due to the different types of Coronse seen on these respective 
occasions. 

I am inclined to the opinion that a total eclipse would, as a 
rule, be brighter on the ocean than on land, for the reason that 
outside the shadow spot on the sea there are no inequalities such 
as mountains and valleys which might to a certain extent dim 
the general light of the landscape surrounding the shadow on 
land. I fancy there are not many in a position to verify the 
correctness of this idea, as astronomers do not often go to sea for 
an eclipse. Yet I am very glad I did, and can never hope to 
have a more pleasant astronomical trip. For one thing, I am 
sure that the binocular gives a much better general view of the 
Corona than any telescope except a very small one would ever do, 



AT SEA. 25 

and my faith in the little instrument after years of work with 
it is more confirmed than ever. 

Before leaving Gibraltar I had the pleasure of meeting Sir 
Norman Lockyer, Dr. Copeland, Messrs. Fowler, Heath and 
others, who had returned from Sta. Pola per H.M.S. " Theseus," 
and were following on to England per R.M.S. " Cuzco." 

And on my return voyage home from Gibraltar I was so lucky 
as to fall in -with Messrs. Keatley Moore, Gare and Captain 
Carpenter, who were returning from Madrid. The composite 
drawing of the Corona produced by this party seems a great 
advance on what has been done before in this line. 

E. E. MARKWICK. 



CHAPTER IV. 

PORTUGAL. 

Two small parties proceeded to Portugal. For the first of these 
Mr. W. B. GIBBS, F.R.A.S., gives the following report: 

The expedition to Portugal consisted of Mr. G. F. Chambers, 
Mr. F. Lys Smith, and myself. The Rev. Mr. Joyce, the port 
chaplain at Southampton, a friend of Mr. Chambers, also accom- 
panied us. We left Southampton for Lisbon on the llth of 
May, in the R.M.S. " Clyde/' which had on board the 
Astronomer Royal's party, and also Mr. Backhouse who observed 
in Spain. We arrived at Lisbon on the 14th, and there found 
a Government tender with Lieut. Pellen, who had been deputed 
by the Portuguese Government to meet us, and afford us any 
assistance we might be in need of. Our baggage and instruments 
were passed free through the customs, and also through the 
octroi, both at Lisbon and elsewhere, and railway season tickets 
over the whole railway system of Portugal were given to us. 

We spent two days in Lisbon visiting the chief places of 
interest, amongst which we may notice particularly the church 
and monastery of Belein, erected as an expression of gratitude 
for the successful expedition of Vasco da Gama, whose tomb is 
within its walls. We then left for Leiria so as to visit Alcobaca, 
Aljubarotta, and Batalha, where in the magnificent chapel is the 
tomb of Prince Henry the navigator. 

On arriving at Oporto several members of the English colony 
there afforded us splendid hospitality, and Lieut. Pellen informed 
us that Dr. Huet da Bacellar would be glad to receive us at 
Ovar, to stay at his house before and during the eclipse, but as 
we had several days to spare we took the opportunity of visiting 
Braga, the third city in the kingdom and the see of an arch- 
bishop, and Bom Jesus, a famous place of pilgrimage in the north 
of Portugal. On our return we paid a visit to Ovar, and arranged 
with Dr. Bacellar to view the eclipse from his garden, whence 
we had an unobstructed view. As excursion trains had been 
run to Ovar ; and the town was full of holiday makers, we 
appreciated verv much the facilities which had been afforded 
us. We had the pleasure of meeting there Dr. Jost, of the 
Heidelberg Observatory, who, during the eclipse, paid special 
attention to Mercury. Mr. G. F. Chambers and Mr. F. Lys 
Smith observed with small refractors. I had a Zeiss 
prismatic field glass, fitted with a photographic grating of about 

26 



PORTUGAL. 



27 



14,500 lines to the inch, which performed splendidly. On 
the day of the eclipse the sky was fairly clear ; there were a few 
very light cirrus clouds about, and a large halo round the sun, 
which from time to time broke up. 

About a quarter of an hour before totality, the blue colour of 
the sky had sensibly deepened, and the brownish red on the 
inside of the broken portions of the halo appeared much more 




VILLA XOVA, ox THE SOCTH BANK OF THE Dovuo, OPPOSITE OPORTO. 



vivid than in full sunlight. The shadows of the observers as 
cast upon the ground, notwithstanding their faintness, appeared 
very sharp, owing to the absence of penumbra. The darkness 
during totality was about the same as that of the Indian eclipse, 
and much less than that seen in Norway in 1896. 

After the eclipse was over our party broke up, Mr. Chambers 
visiting the north of Portugal, Coimbra, and Busaco, whilst 
Mr. F. Lys Smith and I returned to Lisbon and embarking on 
the " Magdalena," arrived at Southampton on the 4th June. 



28 THE TOTAL SOLAB ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

Before closing this report I may perhaps be permitted to say 
that we were greatly struck with the richness of the Portuguese 
flora, which appeared to be a worthy. rival of that of the Swiss 
Alps. The different species of mesembryanthemum, cistus, and 
lithospernum were in great profusion, and made a most brilliant 
show. The public gardens, and such private gardens as those of 
Viscount Cook, at Montserrat, and the Baron de Soutellinho, at 
Oporto, were filled with the most beautiful specimens of tropical 
vegetation. 

Our best thanks are due to the Portuguese Government, to 
the Geographical Society of Lisbon, to Senhor Marianne da Car- 
valho, to the Portuguese Astronomer Royal, to Lieut. Pellen, to 
Dr. Huet da Bacellar, to the Baron de Soutellinho, and to Mr. 
and Mrs. Amyas Wiarre and Mr. John Warre fox the help and 
hospitality they so willingly afforded to all the members of our 
party. 

W. B. GIBBS. 



At the same station, Ovar, were the Rev. AUGUSTIN MORFORD 
and Mr. NIELSEN, whilst the Rev. H. P. SLADE also observed 
the eclipse in Portugal, but from a station a little to the south 
of Ovar, Estarreja, and more nearly on the central line. Mr. 
Slade writes: I arrived at Lisbon on Saturday, May 26th, 
in company with Mr. E. C. Boden, solicitor, of Ilkley, and found 
it unusually' cold for the time of the year, much rain having 
fallen in the northern districts during the week. Happily the 
skies cleared, and we had a splendid view of the eclipse from 
Estarreja, six miles south of Ovar, where the terraced roof of one 
of the principal houses in the village had been kindly secured for 
us by the Administrator, Senhor Manuel Marques Tavares, who 
together with the other local officials, rendered us all the assist- 
ance which lay in their power. 

We selected Estarreja for two reasons, viz., to escape the 
crowd flocking to Ovar, and because Mr. Boden believed that 
the totality at the former station would be greater than at the 
latter, a surmise which proved correct, 92 seconds being recorded 
by us as against 84| by Mr. Christie, the Astronomer Royal of 
Greenwich, as we are informed upon apparently good authority. 
Not being in telegraphic communication with the Lisbon Royal 
Observatory, we had to find time by means of sextant observa- 
tions. The eclipse began with us at 2h. 43m. 18s., and ended at 
5h. 12m. 55s. Greenwich mean time. During the partial phase 
a few cirrus clouds at a great height threatened to interfere with 
the spectacle, but fortunately, at the critical moment, these passed 
over, and left the eclipsed sun in a blue sky. The appearance to 
the naked eye seemed to be annular, but on using the binoculars 
this was seen to be due to the inner corona extending all round 
the moon's disc in a perfectly even ring, shining like highly- 
burnished silver in an intensely brilliant light. From this, and 



PORTUGAL. 



29 



radiating approximately in the plane of the sun's equator, were 
four beautiful fasces, or sheaves of light, the lowest extending 
nearly as far south as Mercury, which planet was conspicuously 
bright. 

During totality there was no darkness, but a resplendent 
twilight which covered earth and sky with fine chromatic effects. 
It was well worth coming 1000 miles to see. 

On the whole the phenomena, although so beautiful, will not 
from its shortness bear comparison with many others of the same 




FOVXTAIX AT OVAR, PORTUGAL. 



kind. The corona., too, was not so striking as in many past 
eclipses, the sun having reached one of its periods of minimum 
solar spot activity, and being, therefore, in a comparatively 
quiescent state. Only three very small spots were observed on it, 
and the protuberances were consequently few and small, and the 
fasces did not extend any great distance from the sun's limbs. 

In closing these notes we desire to express our warmest thanks 
to the Portuguese Government. They gave us a magnificent 
reception, franking all our instruments, lending army tents, 
railing off spaces for the various observing parties, a,nd telling off 
guards to see to their general comfort and preserve privacy. 



30 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

And, finally, they gave us first-class free passes over all the 
lines in Portugal, available for some days before the eclipse, 
and up to the middle of June. At Estarreja we were feted 
and escorted to the station by the officials, and my friend Boden 
came in for a warm Portuguese embrace. We cheered them, 
and they cheered us, and the memories associated with the eclipse 
of May 28th, 1900, will not readily be forgotten. 

II. P. SLADE. 




CHAPTER Y. 
MID-SPAIN. 

No fewer than five small parties took advantage of the railway 
line running eolith-west from Madrid, and passing through 
Talavera and Plasencia. Commencing with the most westerly 
station, Plasencia, Dr. A. M. W. DOWNING, M.A., F.R.S., 
reports : 

We had fixed on Plasencia, in the Province of Caceres, as the 
place from which to observe the eclipse, both because it is a 
place where cloudy skies in May are the exception, and because 
we had learnt that the astronomers of the Madrid Observatory 
had arranged to go there, and their presence would carry with 
it certain advantages, such as a reserved enclosure far from the 
madding crowd and the communication to us of accurate 
Madrid tims. My wife and I reached Plasencia on Sunday morning 
(May 27), and went to an inn to rest and have some refreshment. 
And such an inn ! We were seriously considering the advisa- 
bility of returning to Madrid, in the most expeditious manner 
possible, when we received a most courteous message from a 
Spanish nobleman the Marques de Mirabel placing his palacio 
in Plasencia at our disposal during our visit. The Marques, who 
was at his town residence in Madrid at the time, had heard that 
there was a lady in our party, and, thinking that the posadas 
in Plasencia were scarcely fit for a lady to stay in, had, with the 
most hospitable kindness, sent us his invitation, which we 
accepted with alacrity and gratitude. We were thus relieved 
from all anxiety as to matters of cuisine and accommodation, 
which necessarily press on the traveller in out>of-the-way places 
in Spain. 

The observing camp was on the top of a hill called Berrocalillo, 
about a mile and half out of the town, which we affectionately 
called the " Mountain," it was such a pleasure climbing up to 
the top of it on a really hot afternoon ! Here we found the 
British and Spanish astronomers amicably placed side by side. 
Here were Sir Howard Grubb, the world-renowned astronomical 
instrument maker of Dublin, and his son, Mr. Rudolf Grubb. 
Here also we found Dr. Rambaut, the Radcliffe Observer at 
Oxford, Mr. W. E. Wilson, of Daramona, Prof. Joly, the Royal 
Astronomer of Ireland, Prof. Bergin, of Cork, and Mr. 
Geoghegan, of Dublin. In all there were nine Irish observers, 

31 



32 



THE TOTAL SOLAK ECLIPSE, IQOO. 



including the lady of the party, on the mountain. Senor 
Iniguez, the Director of the Madrid Observatory, accompanied 
by Senor Ventosa, and other members of the staff of the 
observatory, were busily employed, up to the last moment, in 
erecting and adjusting their various instruments. 

On the afternoon of the eventful day we toiled up the 
mountain, under a blazing sun shining in a cloudless sky, with 




PLASEXCIA, AND BRIDGE OVER THE RIVER JKRTE. 



the thermometer standing at 83 in the shade, so that we were 
pretty warm by the time we arrived at the top, and the first 
thing to be done was to rest and eat oranges. We then all got 
into position at our instruments, and had a couple of drills, 
going through the operations that were respectively to occupy 
us during the precious eighty-two seconds during which the total 
eclipse lasted. The first contact of the limbs of sun and moon 
was duly observed at 2h. 34m. Madrid time. Then we waited 
quietly for the great event. As the darkness increased the sky 



MID-SPAIN. 



33 



and landscape assumed the weird appearance peculiar to a total 
eclipse of the sun, though there was more of a roseate hue pre- 
valent on this occasion than is generally noticed. At one minute 
before totality a dog trotted past quite nonchalantly, but just 
afterwards a donkey commenced to bray vociferously, as if he 
thought that something strange was happening. 

At 3h. 50m. the totality was upon us, but it was not possible 




MILL AND MILL-STREAM, PLASEXCIA. 



to see the moon's shadow travelling towards us either on the 
ground or on the sky. In a few seconds, I, to whom the duty 
had been assigned, and who was watching with an opera-glass 
spectroscope, called " Go," as a signal to the photographers that 
they might commence exposing their plates. Then the corona 
burst on our sight, and Mercury was seen shining brightly near 
the sun's western limb, and so close as to obscure, to some extent, 
the view of the corona in that particular part. The corona was 
brighter than might be anticipated for an eclipse occurring 



34 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

during the period when sun-spots are fewest, and any kind of 
aitificial light for making notes at the time was unnecessary. 
The light was certainly considerably greater than that given by 
a full moon, but was, of course, of quite a different character. 
Before we could well realise that the eclipse had commenced I was 
reluctantly compelled to call " Close," as a signal to the photo- 
graphers, and the total eclipse of May 28, 1900, was over. The 
corona was on this occasion of the general form observed in 
eclipses during times of sun-spot minimum. The great extensions 
v/ere in the directions of the sun's equator, both on the eastern 
and western side, the former extension was bifurcated, but the 
latter could be traced further from the sun's limb, to a distance 
o? about three lunar radii. Two large prominences were seen 
near the western limb. 

The remainder of the day was devoted to social recreation. 
The Governor of Caceres a most courteous gentleman accom- 
panied by his secretary, had come to Plasencia for the day, and 
gave us the pleasure of their company, both at dejeuner and at 
dinner. During the latter function a band played in the court- 
yard of the palacio, and added greatly to our enjoyment. 

But the crowning festivity of the day was the " English tea," 
given by my wife to the Governor, the Spanish astronomers, 
the British astronomers, and others. This was a great success, 
and excited the greatest interest amongst the Spaniards the 
Governor, in particular, watching the process of making the 
tea, which had, of course, to be done by the lady herself, with 
the keenest enjoyment. We left Plasencia for Madrid the same 
evening, carrying with us a most vivid impression of the polite- 
ness and courtesy of the Spanish people. 

A. M. W. DOWNING. 

Two other parties of our Members observed the Eclipse from 
the neighbourhood of Plasencia. Mr. T. W. Backhouse, F.R.A.S., 
and Mr. Irwin Sharp, viewed the eclipse from the summit of 
a hill named Santa Barbara, about 2.6 miles E.S.E. of Plasencia, 
an admirable point of view for seeing the effect on the landscape, 
being one thousand feet above the town, 2207 feet above the sea. 
Mr. Thomas Weir, F.R.A.S., .and his party selected their station 
on the east coast of the town. 

Mr. WEIR'S account is as follows : 

Clouds and rain on the Coast of Norway spoiled our view of 
the solar eclipse of 1896, and the remembrance of that experience 
contributed largely towards our deciding that the eclipse of 1900 
ought to be observed from an inland station. Plasencia was, 
therefore, decided upon. Plasencia is a quaint walled town 
dating from medieval times, with a,bout 7000 inhabitants, 
pleasantly situated in the higher mountainous district of mid- 
Spain. It stands on the Jerte, a sub-tributary of the Tagus, and 



MID-SPAIN. 35 

lying about half way between Lisbon and Madrid can be reached 
conveniently by rail from either city. We preferred going by way 
of Lisbon, and when there had the pleasure of calling on the 
Portuguese Astronomer Royal, Senhor Frederico Oom, who 
received us in a most kindly manner, and showed us over his 
observatory. The principal telescope, a 14 inch refractor, is a 
fine serviceable instrument, iand so also is the transit circle 
which is provided with a chair ingeniously contrived to adjust 
itself to any desired position of the body. By order of the 
Government, Senhor Oom had issued an illustrated handbook 
on the eclipse, which was being sold at a nominal price through- 
out Portugal. 

The special courtesy of the Astronomer Royal was represen- 
tative of the general consideration shown us by the customs, 
military, and other authorities with whom we came into contact. 
Our passport, and also a certificate from Mr. Maw, the president 
of the Association, which would doubtless have been of good 
service in case of necessity, were never opened ; the magic word 
"Eclipse" or "Astronomer" sufficing to dispel all difficulties. 
In this connection one could not help thinking of the cosmo- 
politan character of science, and that if opportunities akin to the 
present were of more frequent occurrence, they would prove a 
not unimportant factor in the removal of jealousies and in the 
cementing of fnendships between nations. 

On arriving at Plasencia we found several members of the 
British Astronomical Association already there, and unwilling 
to disturb existing arrangements, decided in company with an 
amateur astronomer from Madrid to observe independently, 
selecting as a site the spur of a mountain, a few hundred feet 
in height, on the eastern side of the town. The day of the 
eclipse proved extremely favourable, being almost cloudless, and 
the sun, high in the heavens, was pouring down rays of intense 
heat, when we took up our position. We were not equipped for 
making observations of an original character, our main object 
being to witness personally, if not the most wonderful, certainly 
the most magnificent and most impressive, of celestial phenomena. 
We had in addition made provision for photographing the 
eclipsed sun, using a camera with 2| in. lens; also, by means 
of a specially delicate thermometer to take the variations of 
temperature, and still further to watch for shadow bands, and 
photograph them should they appear. 

The calculated time of first contact for Plasencia was 
2h. 48m. 15s. p.m., Greenwich time, and ten minutes later it was 
apparent to the unassisted eye that the moon had encroached 
over the edge of the solar disc. No perceptible change of appear- 
ance in the landscape, however, occurred until about 3.15, when 
it was evident that comparative dulness had supervened and 
was gradually increasing. At 3.30 Venus was clearly seen and 
remained visible throughout the eclipse. 3.45 saw the duskiness 
advancing rapidly, and by 4 o'clock, or 5m. 27s. before the com- 

D2 



36 



THE TOTAL SOL AH ECLIPSE, IQOO. 



mencement of the total phase, only a slender crescent of the sun 
remained, and things had assumed an uncommonly weird appear- 
ance. Notwithstanding our favourable situation," the passage of 
the lunar shadow was not detected by us, though we were 
conscious of being immersed in it : the semi-darkness, for there 
was no real blackness, came on suddenly, and during totality, 
computed to last 1m. 28s., everything terrestrial took on a cold 



La Guidara. G. Jackson-Smith. 




C. T. Whitmell. W. F. Stanley. Dr. Stokes. J. Buckley. 

GrRorp OF OBSERVERS, NATALMORAL. 



iron hue, altogether different from the gloom of evening. The 
distant town and more distant mountains were almost blotted 
out from view, whilst in the heavens above round the moon's 
black disc, as if by the touch of a magician's wand, there 
flashed out the corona in grandeur of form and of pearly 
whiteness. Mercury, too, in close proximity, shone with the 
brilliance of a miniature sun, and enveloping the whole was a 
halo of soft white light; a spectacle whose unique beauty word 1 ? 
fail utterly to describe. 

T. WEIR. 



MID-SPAIN. 



37 



The next station after Plasencia travelling eastward which 
was occupied by members of the British Astronomical Associa- 
tion, was Navalmoral. Hither a party of seventeen in number, 
under the leadership of Mr. C. T. WHITMELL, F.R.A.S., 
came by a tour arranged by Messrs. T. Cook and Son ; and to 
the willing and efficient services of Mr. La Guidara., their con- 
ductor, the party is largely indebted. 

Navalmoral, a Spanish village of about 3800 people, is situated 




E. Howarth. 
WINESHOP NEAR NAVALMORAL. 



120 miles W.S.W. of Madrid, in the valley of the Tagus, at an 
altitude of 984 feet. To the south the ground swells into low hills. 
On the N.W., N., and N.E., rises a lofty range (8730 feet) the 
Sierra de Credos the summits of which were patched with snow, 
although the shade temperature on the plain was nearly 
90 Fahr. The ridge of the range on the N.W., at its nearest 
approach, is distant about 20 miles. To the W. and E. the 
country is open, and on the N.W., and N.E., there is a consider- 
able stretch of low ground extending for perhaps 12 miles to 
the foot of the Sierra. 



38 THE TOTAL SOLAR^ ECLIPSE, 1 900. 

The conditions for observing the eclipse were in every respect 
favourable. The sky was clear of cloud in the morning, nor 
did the few light patches of cirro-cumulus which formed later 
in the day at any time pass in front of the sun, which shone 
uninterruptedly all day, with a penetrating heat that was some- 
what discomforting to the travellers from more northern climes. 
Punctuality is not one of the virtues of the Spaniard, not even 
when the inexorable march of the planets permits no procrastina- 
tion to those who wish to witness their movements. Though not 
surprising, it was certainly very tantalising to find that the 
train in which the observers travelled from Madrid was rather 
more than an hour late in starting, this being chiefly due to 
the very large number of Spanish people who wished to travel 
by it to see the total phase. It was some consolation for the 
delay to note the widespread interest aroused by the eclipse. 
The distance from Madrid to Navalmoral is about 120 miles in 
a south-westerly direction, and owing to many stoppages it 
became a matter of some anxiety, before the journey was ended, 
as to whether they would arrive before totality began. Fortunately 
they were in ample time, though the first contact occurred 
whilst they were still in the train. Ten minutes before the 
calculated time of first contact, Mr. Howarth watched the sun 
through smoked glasses from the open window of the railway 
carriage, and at 2h. 48m. 40s. G.M.T. he noticed a slight flatten- 
ing of the limb of the sun on the western side near to the lower 
edge. When the train, arrived at Navalmoral at 2h. 55m. the 
indentation caused by the moon on the sun's face could be plainly 
seen. 

The majority of the party proceeded along the railway line till 
quite clear of the crowd, and took up their position in a field 
close to the line, and just below the village. The two large 
sheets for the shadow bands observations were spread on the 
north-western side of the railway track, which was raised some 
eight or ten feet above the surrounding ground, the railway 
metals running directly towards the then position of the sun. 
On the north-western side of the railway line the plain extended 
without any break in its surface to the base of the Sierra de 
Credos, giving thus an uninterrupted view in the line of the 
shadow's approach. 

Many thousands of Spaniards streamed out by excursion trains 
from Madrid, and grouped themselves about the hilly ground 
near Navalmoral, in order to watch the eclipse. Even a bull- 
fight would hardly have secured a larger attendance. As the 
brilliant sun was blotted out, and darkness descended, an intense 
silence came over the assembled multitudes, awe-stricken at the 
weird solemnity, the incomparable grandeur, of the sublimest of 
celestial phenomena. Pent up feelings were relieved by the 
loud cheers which hailed the dazzling spark of reappearing sun- 
light. 

Two members of the party, Mr. and Mrs. Constable, observed 



MID-SPAIX. 39 

the eclipse at Talavera ? a considerable town 40 miles east of 
Navalmoral. 

On 26th May, whilst travelling by train from Toledo to Madrid, 
the sky being perfectly clear, I had an unusually good view of the 
earth's shadow. The sun set about 7h. 30m. p.m. to the N. of 
W. I observed carefully the disappearing disc, but saw no sign 
of the " green flash." 

Turning after sunset to watch the eastern horizon, where 
Jupiter had just become visible, a slaty blue-grey segment of a 
circle appeared opposite to the sunset point, and rapidly increased 
in width and height. Its rising was, of course, consequent upon 
the falling of the now invisible sun. Fringing the segment was 
a rosy purple annulus, due to our atmosphere. This beautiful, 
but little known, phenomenon, is the Earth's Shadow. It re- 
mained in sight for, perhaps, half-an-hour. 

From near Madrid, at 8 p.m. on 29th May, we saw for a few 
minutes, close to the western horizon, a very thin crescent moon, 
about 29 hours old. The geocentric elongation of the moon from 
the sun was nearly 15|, so that only l/55th of her illuminated 
area was visible, the broadest part of the crescent measuring 
only some 34". Doubtless irradiation made it look larger. 

C. T. WHITMELL. 



CHAPTER VI. 

MANZANABE8* 

THE earnest follower of any pursuit must early accustom himself 
to disappointment and failure : and of all pursuits he who 
follows astronomy : and of all branches of astronomy he who 
aspires to no higher rank than that of the humble eclipse 
sketcher : or so it seemed. For, when I undertook to organise 
a sketching party, the Association had a noble steamer at its 
command, and we started gallantly with a nucleus of four, two 
ladies and two gentlemen, to whom doubtless many more would 
have added themselves as soon as we met on board the " Tagus." 
But when war-necessities had robbed us of the " Tagus," and 
the Association was unable to carry through a fresh arrangement, 
all those probable accessions disappeared ; and when the gentle- 
men determined to strike for the middle of Spain, the ladies' 
courage failed them; and the sketchers finally resolved them- 
selves into two, Captain Alfred Carpenter, K.N., F.R.Met.Soc., 
and myself. For two men it seemed a heavy task, seeing 
that each would have to sketch his half of the corona in a 
minute. Capt. Carpenter, however, had had considerable prac- 
tice in sketching coast lines on service in the East, and I had the 
advantage of experience of eclipse work. Since no photograph, 
except the famous Indian " long-tailed " one of Mrs. Maunder, has 
ever succeeded in giving a fair representation of the whole corona, 
it seemed necessary to make a serious attempt at sketching, even 
v/ith such limited resources : so we bought white chalk and blue 
paper, and started. With us also went Mr. Francis Gare, whose 
photometric apparatus for measuring the intensity of the coronal 
light we took to India in 1898, where Mr. Ernest W. Johnson 
was very successful with it. Mr. Johnson was also working with 
it on this occasion at Elche, near Alicante, as well as Mr. Gare 
himself with us. Besides our sketching and our photometry we 
proposed to observe shadow bands and meteorological pheno- 
mena. It also seemed advisable, as we had the necessary materials, 
and knew how slight is the dependence to be placed on Spanish 
geographical accuracy, to ascertain the true position of our ob- 
serving station. After some hesitation, we had fixed upon 
Manzanares; for excursions were running to the neighbouring 

* By H. KEATIEY MOOBE. 



MANZANARES. 41 

Argamasilla la Alba from Madrid, and though Manzanares 
was not quite on the central line we sacrificed a few 
seconds to obtain that freedom and quiet which would have been 
impossible in the circumstances at the ever-famous birthplace of 
Don Quixote, and the prison of his creator. 

We left London on 17th May in the " Britannia" (P. & O.), 
and had a delightful trip to Gibraltar. Here the contests with 
sharks, who disguise themselves as boatmen, dimly recalled those 
terrible Kulis in India. Our acquaintance with Spanish was 
only a few weeks old ; and though it sufficed us to puzzle through 
a newspaper, it had an awkward way of breaking down on 
emergencies. We crossed to Algeciras, and went on the same 
clay (21st) to romantic Honda, through cork forests, aloe hedges, 
and the most lavish display of exquisite wild flowers that any 
of us had ever seen. It was night before we reached the glorious 
amphitheatre of mountains in which that ancient stronghold 
of cutthroats and smugglers is situated, now, alas, " fallen from 
its high estate, and weltering in " .... respectability. Venus 
and Gemini in the west were exactly balanced by Jupiter and 
Scorpio in the east. Presently, in nautical phrase, Venus was 
observed to starboard, and Jupiter to port, and the whole world 
reeled in uncertainty. Examination by compass showed that we 
were in truth, as the planets indicated, steering due south ; and 
at last kindly natives helped us out of our confusion by explain- 
ing that the mountain-peninsula of Honda is only approachable 
from the north. It was for the moment, however, a trial of 
faith to make a steep up-hill journey true north and find oneself 
at the end of the day spinning down-hill due south ! 

The end of the next day saw us in the Alhambra, amidst all 
the magic of that unequalled place. The wealth of nightingales 
in the elms of the Alameda (whose planting we were glad to 
owe to the great Duke of Wellington) consoled us in the evenings 
when the architectural glories due to Yusuf and Muhammad V. 
were closed to us. The skies were spotlessly clear, the snows 
of the Nevada gleamed silver, and Venus nightly threw well- 
marked shadows across the path as we walked by the towers of 
the red palace (Alhambra) down the Cuesta del Rey Chico, or 
amidst the clipped cypresses of the grounds of the Generalife. 
We stayed, as probably all men do, to the last available moment : 
and when we left promised ourselves a longer stay " next 
time." Saturday, 26th, saw us amongst the narrow Moorish 
streets of Seville (where a stork adorning the pinnacle of a 
church was irresistible to our photographer), and very early on 
Sunday morning we were walking in Don Quixote's land of 
La Mancha, along the dusty road towards the country-town of 
Manzanares, unknown to the unknown. Two other members of 
the Association (Mr. David G. Simpson, F.R.A.S., and his son, 
Mr. D. C. Simpson), who had come out with us from England, 
parted company with us here, and went on in the train, bound 
for Toledo. We did not meet again till Gibraltar on the home- 



42 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 



ward journey. The mozo who carried our simple traps told us 
that there was but one inn at Manzanares, but that was irre- 
proachable. When we came to it we were rather taken aback 
by its exceeding simplicity, in spite of his warm recommendation 
hotel-keeping was here reduced to the prime elements. There 
were, however, three guest-chambers, of a sort, opening one out 
of the other. We boldly entered the first, but hurriedly retired 
as a swarthy hidalgo threw back his bare brawny arms to raise 
his head on the pillow that he might check the intruders on his 
rest. Urged by the chambermaid, and accepted by the hidalgo, 
we advanced : but we felt unfeignedly glad that our ladies had 
remained in England. Everything was equally rough, but it 
was clean; and the people were most kind in their endeavours 




" EQUAL ALTITUDES," MAXZANAKES. 



to ascertain our wants, and to supply them, however queer they 
evidently were to them. Sometimes we ran aground, as for 
instance, in the article of butter. " Manteca de vaca?" (cow- 
butter) there was none to be had for love or money; but 
" manteca de cerdo," now, would that do? We agreed; only 
to find it simple lard (pig-butter). He who had most Spanish 
amongst us, armed with a dictionary, carefully dictated the com- 
ponents of each next ensuing meal : but what came of his daring 
endeavours invariably filled us with surprise, it was so totally 
unlike the intention. Still, while to some extent obliged to 
endorse the warnings of discomfort in country places in Spain 
which had so alarmed our ladies, we only suffered such humorous 
privations as formed materials for a good laugh; and, on the 
other hand, the genuine courtesy and friendliness of it all quite 
disarmed criticism, so that we left our rugged hostelry with 



MANZANARES. 



43 



regret. On that Sunday morning, as soon as the inward and the 
outward man were refreshed, we sallied forth in search of the 
Alcalde of the town, Senor Don Pedro Antonio Caleros y 
Carrascosa. Every one in Manzanares seems to have a double- 
barrelled name, but curiously enough, one never hears it : for 
the particularly pleasant form of address in use hereabouts limits 
itself to the Christian name only. Not once was the Alcade 
addressed as Senor Caleros; he was always "Don Pedro," to 
the humblest of his subjects. The British Embassy at Madrid 
had kindly caused word of our purpose to be sent to 




TUB " B. A. A." OBSERVATORY AT MAXZANAHES (LA MAXCHA). 
CASTILLO DE PILAS HORHAS. 

From a Water Colour Sketch by H. KEATLEY MOORE. 



Manzanares, and we bore also about with us a large envelope 
with a huge seal, containing an authenticating letter from 
the Spanish Ambassador in London. Between the two, 
therefore, "Don Pedro " felt it necessary to summon 
the Town Council and see what he could do for us. 
They duly assembled, such as were not at church, and we en- 
deavoured to converse, but with such embarrassing difficulty that 
until mass was over and there arrived amongst the rest of the 
council a professor of French to facilitate matters, we did not 
make much progress. When we at length obtained our honorary 
interpreter we were invited to state every possible requirement; 



44 THE TOTAL SOLAE, ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

and the more we asked the more we were pressed to ask. The 
Alcalde promised to obtain for us the use of the Castillo de Pilas 
Horras, a detached old Moorish castle in the outskirts of the 
town, now used as a granary or storehouse and we all went to 
see if it would serve our purpose. It was a great square tower 
with walls of massive strength, about 50 feet high, with a parapet 
surrounding a flat paved roof, giving uninterrupted views in 
every direction. There was some fun in the difficulties which 
beset the stoutest of us, as the whole council and its visitors 
ascended the narrow and ruinous stair passages in the thickness 
of the walls, but even the Alcalde arrived safe and dusty on the 
summit. Nothing could be better for our purpose. We observed 
some factory chimneys not far off, and spoke about their possible 
smoke on the eventful Monday. " They shall not smoke," averred 
the courteous Don Pedro : and how it was contrived we did 
not know they certainly did not. One hears of French polite- 
ness, but it is nothing to the politeness of the Spaniard when 
he sets his mind to it. Everything in Manzanares seemed to 
be at our service; half a dozen members at once invited us to 
make a home of the local club, a police escort watched to see our 
observations were not interfered with, a capital band of guitars 
came and serenaded us, every one was pressing us to pay visits 
and make excursions, and the general regret that our work 
necessitated so many refusals seemed quite genuine. One visit 
we paid to the wine-factory of Senor Quevedo was extremely 
interesting. The somewhat heady red wine drunk as via 
ordinaire throughout Southern Spain (Val de penas) is grown 
in this district. It is stored below ground in huge jars of old 
Moorish pattern, each of which stands in an alcove dug out of 
the solid rock: and of these double files of jars there are inter- 
minable corridors full. The wine presses, the great stacks of 
" husks " (skins, stalks, and seeds) the mighty metal tanks of 
spirit, all were on a colossal scale astonishing to see. The whole 
wound up with a charming al fresco supper in the twilight, with 
all kinds of tempting cakes and sweetmeats, and of course count- 
less tastings of various wines and liqueurs made in the factory. 
Some of these were delicious, and some strong withal. Yet not- 
withstanding the national fondness for wine, and keen apprecia- 
tion of it ; drunkenness seems rare in Spain. We did not see one 
drunken person in Manzanares and what was far more astonish- 
ing to any one travelling in Spain, not one beggar either. We 
pressed Don Pedro for an explanation of these phenomena. His 
reply was curiously convincing. There was no one in Manzanares 
who was so bitterly poor or so degraded as to beg : and as for 
drunkenness they had no time for such nonsense, he said : all 
the working folk had little vineyards of their own round 
Manzanares; and festivals and holidays, instead of being spent 
in drinking, served them as their only chance of a day's work 
on their own land now and then. Their regular occupation was 
with Quevedo or some of the other great vine-growers or wine- 




CHURCH AND MABKET PLACE, MAXZAXARES. 




CASTILLO DE SAX CEUVAXTES OUTSIDE TOLEDO. 



MANZANARES. 47 

makers of the district. But he was evidently very proud of the 
industry and sobriety of his town being such as to strike even 
the casual stranger. Manzanares is well supplied with electric 
light and with good water, both municipal undertakings; and 
we were condoled with because we were too soon for the opening 
of the Plaza Toros (Bull-ring) which was just being completed. 
Hitherto the bull fights have been held outside the church in 
the market place : and the only balconies available (beyond 
those of the houses round the space) were those which were 
erected two storeys high against the wall of the church, the 
buttresses of which were brought forward to serve as walls for 
them, a very quaint service for church buttresses to fulfil. We 
left Manzanares in a procession of the curious and extremely 
uncomfortable country carts (than which a Hindu ekka alone 
is more springless and backbreaking), the whole of the ayunta^ 
miento coming with us to see us off. Our modest expenses at 
the inn were found to be already paid when we asked for 
the bill. 

Our work at Manzanares, sextant observations, etc., usually 
brought a crowd round us. They seemed to think we were 
uncanny folk, biit they never annoyed us in the slightest degree : 
more perfectly polite crowds were not possible. On eclipse day 
we were alone on our tower, save for four Spanish friends, every 
one respecting our request for quiet. Our observations are else- 
where recorded in this volume, and need not therefore be re- 
capitulated here. 

At Madrid, where we spent a few days, we did a little work 
with Senor Ventosa of the Observatory : and from him also we 
received great kindness and personal attention, still further 
emphasising the fine politeness which so characterises Spain. 
We managed to find time for a day at Toledo, and for another 
on our homeward way at Cordova : and we wound up brilliantly 
at Gibraltar with a visit to the Mediterranean Squadron, where 
Captain Henderson entertained us on the " Isis." We little 
thought when peacefully lunching in his comfortable quarters 
that in a few weeks he would be hurrying his fine ship at full 
speed towards China, in the hope of saving British lives in 
deadly danger. 

H. KEATLEY MOORE. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ELCHE* 

WHEN the " Tagus " trip was suggested, I had proposed with my 
friends making Alicante our port of landing in Spain, for Elche, 
about 12 miles to the south, and almost on the central line of 
Eclipse; and in spite of the " Tagus " expedition eventually 
falling through, we still adhered to our original plan and decided 
upon Elche as our Eclipse Station : in fact we had already 
engaged rooms at the only Fonda in the place early in February. 

Leaving England on the 10th May, on board R.M.S. " Egypt " 
a ship familiar to many of us who went to India in 1898 
our party consisted of only three members, Lady McClure, 
Miss Jessie McRae, and myself, but amongst the passengers were 
some who would observe the Eclipse at other places in Spain. 
We made the acquaintance of Mr. Franklin Adams, one of 
Professor Copeland's party, who was in charge of some of the 
instruments, and was to meet the remaining members of the 
Scotch camp, as well as Sir Norman Lockyer and his party, at 
Gibraltar. Here the cruiser " Theseus " was in readiness to 
convey them with all their instruments to Santa Pola, near 
Alicante, where we saw Mr. Adams again two days before the 
Eclipse. 

After a, pleasant and quick passage, Gibraltar was duly 
reached on 14th May, and here all the Eclipse passengers dis- 
embarked and separated to their several localities ; our own 
party going first to Honda, passing en route most beautiful 
scenery through the famous Cork Woods, and two days later to 
Granada. 

At Granada we stayed at the Washington Irving Hotel, on 
the Hill of the Alhambra, and close under the inner walls 
of that romantic pile, and here we met Mrs. Colman Willis and 
her family; one of her sons, Mr. E. C. Willis, being a member 
of the B.A.A. As they were also bound for Elche for the 
Eclipse, we decided to join forces and make one party. 

During all this time we were somewhat dismayed at the 
weather, which had been most unsettled ever since we landed 
in Spain. Every day we had rain at some time, and generally 
in the afternoon at about the hour when the Eclipse would take 
place. At Gibraltar we were told by one of the inhabitants 

* By E. W. JOHNSON. 

48 






I 5 

a 3 

>> w 

1 5 

^ S 



B 



' 7* 




OF 

UNIVEIr SITY 



ELCHE. 51 

that even then, fourteen days beforehand, the Eclipse was 
exerting an evil influence upon the weather ! ! The wind was 
very boisterous, and the rain came down in heavy torrents 
for a short time every day, but the long intervals were bright 
and sunny. 

From Granada we visited Seville and Cordova; at the latter 
place spending much time in the famous mosque of Moorish 
origin, a building that might well be ranked amongst the 
wonders of the world. 

From Cordova we travelled to Alicante via Alcazar Junction, 
and arrived at Elche on Thursday, 24th May. This being 
Ascension Day, the inhabitants were all taking holiday, and as 
we approached the station through groves of palms, we noticed 
a vast crowd of people on the platforms, people who with 
nothing much to do, had come to see the train arrive and 
depart. Everywhere in Spain, in fact, the railway station 
seems to be the general meeting place for gossip of all sorts. 

Elche is an exceedingly picturesque little Moorish town of a 
distinctly Oriental type, with white, flat-roofed houses, and sur- 
rounded with palm trees. These are the date palms, which here 
find a light sandy soil to suit them ; they grow to a great height 
and afford pleasant shade, and amongst them run some swift 
streams where the women come to do their washing. 

Our first concern at Elche was to find a suitable observing 
station, and after wandering about outside the town in search 
of a quiet spot, we appealed to our landlord to help us. He 
suggested a roof, but could not lend us the roof of his hotel 
as it was already bespoken by a Russian astronomer, but almost 
opposite the hotel was a Cafe Restaurant, with a large flat roof, 
and this we at once engaged, with a stipulation that no one else 
should be allowed thereon. This eventually proved to be a 
wise precaution, as several strangers on Eclipse day tried to gain 
access to it. 

Having secured our roof we at once began preliminary obser- 
vations by ascertaining the points of the compass, noticing 
the weather conditions and the position of the sun at the 
appointed hour, and by planning out our different stations, 
so that all might work smoothly on the eventful day. At one 
end of the roof was a white wall, nearly due north and south, 
which afforded us an excellent surface for " shadow band " 
observations. At sunset we used the roof as an observatory, 
where we could watch the shadow of the earth rising in the 
east, and the Zodiacal Light in the west, which, however, was 
not so clearly defined as we saw it in India in 1898. We also 
paid particular attention to the constellation Scorpio and the 
neighbourhood of the planets Jupiter and Saturn, which seemed 
to us a specially rich region of the heavens, and a region which 
we cannot observe to advantage in our northern latitudes. 

On Saturday, 26th May, we drove to Santa Pola, a distance of 
about 8 miles from Elche, and on the coast, where were 



52 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 



established the two British Eclipse Camps, that of Sir Norman 
Lockyer and that of Professor Copeland. 

Hiring an Elche pony carriage we started about 9 o'clock, and 




PALMS AT ELCHE. 



expected to be back by the middle of the day, but our plans 
were much altered for us as the day advanced. 

Long before reaching Santa Pola we descried H.M.S. 
" Theseus " riding at anchor in the Bay, and after driving 



ELCHE. 53 

through the town we found our way to the sea-shore, where Sil 
Norman Lockyer had all his apparatus set up. 

Sir Norman received us very cordially, and explained to us 
the working of some of his instruments, and invited us to return 
at 4 o'clock to witness his Eclipse drill. 

We then visited the Scotch camp about half a mile distant, and 
here we renewed our acquaintance with Mr. Franklin Adams, 
who introduced us to Professor Copeland, and who kindly 
invited us to lunch and made arrangements for us to visit 
H.M.S. " Theseus " afterwards. 

Whilst we were at the Scotch camp the Governor of the 
Province of Alicante arrived and was shown the instruments 
by Professor Copeland. Here was the large telescope which was 
a familiar object to all of us who went to Vadso in 1896. 

Another object which attracted our attention and which -fe 
duly admired was a large wall close by, which had been freshly 
whitened by the bluejackets of the " Theseus," and was to 
serve for the observation of shadow bands. After being most 
hospitably entertained at luncheon we were escorted by one of 
the officers to the quay, where a steam launch met us and took 
us to the " Theseus," a mile or so out in the Bay. Most of the 
officers, including the captain, were on shore, but one of the 
junior officers showed us every possible attention, and conducted 
us over the ship, explaining the working of the guns and 
torpedoes. 

At 3.30 we returned on shore, just in time for Sir Norman 
Lockyer's Eclipse drill. The apparently simple way in which 
it was all gone through showed how thorough had been the 
previous drills, and we felt that, as Sir Norman said, they were 
quite ready for the Eclipse if it should come a day too soon ! 

Shortly afterwards, bidding farewell and wishing our friends 
every success on Eclipse day, we drove back to Elche, feeling 
that this day would rank as one of the most interesting in every 
way during our whole trip. It enabled us to correct the error 
of our watches, and Mr. Heath very kindly supplied us with the 
times of the Eclipse worked out for Elche; for all of which 
we were very thankful. 

On returning to Elche we soon learned of the arrival of 
Mrs. Willis and her family, thus making our Eclipse party 
complete. We were now able to make our final arrangements 
for the Eclipse, which consisted of 

(1) Photographs of the Corona, 

(2) Observations of shadow bands. 

(3) Gathering gloom photographs. 

(4) Meteorological observations. 

(5) Sensitometer photographs. 

On Sunday, 27th May, we had a rehearsal of our several 
undertakings, which proved most beneficial, and we were glad 
also at last to notice the afternoon absolutely unclouded at the 



54 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

appointed hour, which fine weather repeated itself on Eclipse 
day, whereas the day following there was slight cloud about. 
Thus, so far as the weather was concerned, we had all that 
could have been desired, and we rejoiced later on when we heard 
that all along the line of the shadow track other observers had 
also been equally fortunate. 

The morning of the 28th broke cloudless, and as the Eclipse 
would not begin till nearly 3 o'clock, we had plenty of time in 
hand. Close outside the hotel and quite early in the day our 




A LOCAL FORECAST OF THE ECLIPSE, ELCHE. 



attention was directed to some large pictures being exhibited 
in the streets, representing comets and stars, with dragons and 
monsters, besides scenes of naval battles, etc., all evidently in- 
tended to impress the ignorant peasant**, and perhaps deceive 
them about the great event of the day. The day was kept as a 
general holiday, and during the morning great numbers of 
people flocked into the town from all the country round. 

The resources of our little Fonda were taxed to the utter- 
most to find accommodation and food for the hundreds who 
demanded them ; in fact many who would have been glad of its 
hospitality were forced to go elsewhere. 




ELCHE. 55 



Shortly before the Eclipse began, it was a curious sight to 
see the roofs, which until then had been deserted, suddenly 
teem with life, being crowded with the excited populace. Some 
days previously several foreign astronomers, including M. 
Flammarion, had arrived, and had made their headquarters a 
little distance outside the town. 

We all kept quiet and cool through the morning, and by 2 30 
took up our positions on the roof, when at 2.58 first contact 
was announced by gun fire. Being all of us provided with dark 
glasses there was no difficulty in watching the gradually 
diminishing disc of the sun. 

At 3.38 Mr. J. H. Willis first announced the appearance 
of Venus almost vertically overhead. At 20 minutes and 10 
minutes before totality I called the times to Lady McClure to 
make exposures of 10 seconds each for " Gathering Gloom " 
photographs; I also making identical sensitometer exposures 
as arranged beforehand with Mr. Gare. 

Soon after the second of these exposures I was able to call 
the attention of Miss McRae to the rapidly moving shadow 
bands, and she then made special notes with reference to them. 

Time was now very close to the critical moment of totality, 
to which our attention was now completely given, and I was able 
to see the Corona, as it were, unfold itself some few seconds before 
a second gun shot announced totality. During totality a series 
of photographs of the Corona were taken by Lady McClure, 
Miss Willis, Miss Edith Willis, and Mr. E. C. Willis, by means 
of ordinary half-plate cameras. 

Miss McRae noted the appearance of planets and stars. I 
had a sensitometer exposure to make of 30 seconds duration 
as arranged with Mr. Gare, and reported upon by him else- 
where; I was also able to spare a few seconds to look away at 
the shadow band sheets, but could see no bands of any kind. 

My sensitometer exposure being complete, and having some 
opera glasses handy, I was able to observe the Eclipse itself, 
and especially noted the polar rays, and was finally rewarded 
with a splendid sight of Baily's Beads. 

Mercury was a resplendent object, close to the termination of 
the longest of the coronal streamers, and like Venus in the Eclipse 
of 1898. would seem to suggest that perhaps the planets exert some 
attractive influence over the Solar Corona. A second or two of 
valuable time was lost to us at second contact by someone on a 
neighbouring roof sending aloft an air balloon which dropped 
fireworks as it descended, consequently distracting our attention. 

After totality, shadow bands were again noted, and further 
departing gloom and sensitometer photographs undertaken, 
besides photographs of our party in a group on the roof, after 
which we all returned to the hotel to tea, eagerly talking over 
together the wonders of the beautiful spectacle we had seen. 

Mr. J. H. Willis undertook the whole of the meteorological 
work with most painstaking care and skill, and his report will 



56 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 



be found elsewhere. Leaving Elche the next day, we travelled 
from Alicante to Madrid with Dr. Lockyer and Mr. W. L. 
Wyllie, A.R.A., from Santa Pola; and that same evening 
about 7.40 we saw the young moon, then only 27 hours old, 
and presenting a very beautiful and slender crescent. 

At Madrid we met Mr. Keatley Moore, Mr. Gare, and 
Captain Carpenter, who had observed the Eclipse at Manzanares. 
We were glad to compare notes with them and to learn of their 
success. 

After visiting Toledo and the Escorial, we proceeded io 




THE 13 JUDGE AT ELCIIK. 



Biarritz and Paris, and at the latter place included a special 
visit to the great telescope in the Exhibition, where our fellow 
member, M. Antoniadi, gave us every assistance possible. Thence 
we went to London, thus concluding a very pleasant Eclipse 
excursion, with, let us hope, some results in the interests of 
science, which we now lay before the Members of the British 
Astronomical Association. 

E. W. JOHNSON. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ALGIERS* 

THE observers choosing Algiers as their station were far more 
numerous than those going in any other direction, the ease with 
which the journey could be made, and the high probability of a 
clear sky and transparent air, proving a great attraction. But 
having arrived at their destination, the observers were almost 
necessarily broken up into several parties. Of these, one mads 
their headquarters the Hotel de la Regence, in the Place du 
Gouvernement, a second established themselves at the Hotel 
Continental, in Mustapha Superieur, and of these a contingent 
observed the eclipse from the roof of the house of Mr. Drummond 
Hay, the British Vice-Consul. The passengers by the 
" Argonaut " divided into two chief sections, the one selecting 
Cemetery Hill, the other Cape Matifou, as their positions. The 
observers, thus coming by many different routes, arriving on the 
scene of action at different times, and occupying different stations, 
no concerted action, except of the slenderest kind, was possible. 
Still having been in direct communication with members of 
every section, and having been kindly furnished with informa- 
tion as to the doings of each, I have tried as far as possible 
to give in one single account a sketch of the work in Algiers. 

The party with which I was more immediately connected, 
consisted at starting of Mr. and Mrs. Crommelin, my wife and 
two daughters, and myself. On the steamer from Marseilles to 
Algiers we were joined by Mr. C. L. Brook and his sister Mrs. 
Arthur Brook, and a day or two after our arrival at Algiers 
the Rev. C. D. P. Davies, Miss C. O. Stevens, and Miss L. 
Martin-Leake joined us. 

There is a curious experience to which an over-sea journey 
renders one liable, namely, the sudden interruption of one's 
usual sources of information as to passing events. Thus, just 
as I went on board in the expedition to the West Indies in 
1886, we got the exciting news of desperate street fighting in 
Belfast, and we left England with vague apprehensions of 
troubles which might take a very serious form. For a fortnight 
we heard nothing, and when at length we were again in tele- 
graphic communication with Great Britain, we heard no more 
of the event which had loomed so large at our departure, for 

* By Mr. E. WALTER MAVXDER, F.R.A.S. 



58 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

the Belfast riots had run their course as a nine days' wonder, 
and had become stale and forgotten. So, in starting to Algiers, 
we were somewhat similarly tantalized, for whilst we had been 
buckling the last straps on the last portmanteaux late in the 
evening of May 18th, in preparation for our early start for Algiers 
on the following morning, we heard the deep, vibrating roar 
that had seemed first devised on the night that Kimberley was 
relieved ; and we looked at each other and said, " Mafeking is 
safe." The desired hours of rest were shortened at both ends 
by the process of " mafficking," but at London Bridge next 
morning Mr. Crommelin made the appalling announcement that 
the report of the relief was not " official," and that it possibly 
was not true, and we had to pass into France, a land utterly 
ignorant of and uninterested in the event that meant so much 
to us. We enquired that night in Paris if it were true, we 
asked again at Marseilles, we sought again and again for in- 
formation when we got to Algiers, but it was not till the third 
or fourth day after our arrival that we got full confirma- 
tion of the news. 

On Saturday night, in Paris, we went with Mr. and Mrs. 
Crommelin and M. Antoniadi to the Exhibition, to see the great 
telescope that M. Antoniadi was engaged in getting into adjust- 
ment. First we paused in the theatre, where a lecturer was 
showing on the screen some very beautiful photographs of the 
moon, the finest we have ever seen. The lantern was placed 
in the line of the optical axis of the leviathan, whose eye-end 
was immediately behind it, and we fear that many of the 
audience believed that the beautiful pictures they beheld were 
given directly by the great telescope; indeed, almost every 
published description leads this to be inferred. It must be 
confessed that the lecturer did not state that these lunar presen- 
tations were directly from the moon shining on the siderostat, 
and thence reflected through the giant telescope directly on to 
the screen; but the placing of the instruments would suggest 
this inference, and we wondered how many of the audience 
speculated as to what quality or virtue there could be in an 
aperture of 49 inches that could persuade the moon to go through 
its phases with such rapidity. Then we watched a number of 
workmen raising by chains and pulleys the plate glass cover 
from the mirror of the siderostat, and with other sightseers we 
examined the slow motions and controls situated in the mounting. 
Here M. Antoniadi stayed with an assistant workman to set 
the circles and bring the star into the field. Going upstairs 
to the gallery, level with the leviathan tube, we met M. Deloncle, 
the owner of the great instrument, and being " des astronomss '' 
he took us into the hedged enclosure round the eye-piece, where 
the lay and the profane are not admitted. Mdlle. Klumpke 
and M. Mathieu were a,t this end, aiding M. Antoniadi in the 
adjustments, and we watched them with a delightful sense of 
irresponsibility. M. Antoniadi moved the circles, his assistant 
kept his ear to the telephone, M. Mathieu gave directions at 




UNIVERSITY 

OF 



ALGIERS. 



61 



the other end of the telephone wire, and Mdlle. Klumpke beside 
him, watched the star as it shot across the ground glass. A 
parti-coloured flare of light hovered on the edge of the field ; 
" plus a droite," called M. Mathieu through the telephone; the 
flare shot right across, brightening as it passed through the 
centre and fading as it passed off on the right edge of the field ; 
an irresistible impulse forced Mdlle. Klumpke to make a grab 
at the flying world. " Top/' cried M. Mathieu, but the star was 
gone, and only returned to make a frantic rush across the field 
to the left, and so da capo. It seemed to us that it would have 




B. A. A. OBSERVING PARTY, HOTEL DK LA REGEXCE, ALGIERS. 



been a great improvement if the observer at the eye-end could 
have been able to electrically control and move the instrument, 
directly himself, but apart from this criticism, we could have 
nothing but admiration for the size, the finish, the mounting 
and effectiveness of the great siderostat itself. It was a feat of 
engineering, as well as of ingenious mechanism. 

Monday afternoon saw us on the " General Chanzy " in 
Marseilles harbour, and here we were united to several members 
of our party and other eclipse pilgrims. Bound to the same 
bourne .as ourselves were Mr. C. L. Brook and Mrs. Arthur 
Brook, Mr. Wesley was going to Bou-Zarea, to the equatorial 
coude of the Algiers observatory, the domes of which we could 



62 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

see silhouetted against the sky on the brow of the hill to our 
right as we entered the Bay. Major Kingsley Foster also was 
on his way to Bou-Zarea to assist Prof. H. H. Turner, and Mr. 
Lucas and Mr. Crawford were intending to take part in the same 
duty. On board were also M. Stefan, director of the Marseilles 
Observatory, and three Swiss astronomers, Professors Gautier, 
of Geneva, Riggenbach, of Bale, and Wolfer, of Zurich, the 
three latter intending to join Prof. Tacchini at his station near 
Menerville, some 30 miles from Algiers. 

Very striking looked Algiers, the " White City," as we 
approached it, its white houses, climbing terrace after terrace 
up the steep sides of the hill, and flashing with dazzling points 
of light where the sun was reflected back from glass window 
or conservatory roof. Very striking also was it on a nearer 
approach, when having passed within the mole, the latter dis- 
figured by a huge inscription indicative of the deplorable 
" Judenhatze " that has made Algiers and its mayor notorious, 
we reached the landing stage, a kaleidoscope of races and cos- 
tumes. The crowd, the shouting, the ceaseless bustle reminded 
us forcibly of our arrival at Bombay, two years before, but 
here we had no anxiety about the landing of our instruments, 
for these had arrived before us, and thanks to the courtesy of 
the French Government had been immediately handed over on 
our behalf to Messrs. Cook's representative, Mr. Gould, without 
the slightest delay or examination at the Custom House. 

Our hotel was in the very centre of the city, facing its chief 
Place, a site which in a northern clime would not be ideal for 
an observing station, but which here in smokeless, fireless, sub- 
tropical Algiers, had few drawbacks and not a few advantages, 
whilst our landlord, M. Marty, saw to it that we wanted for 
no help or convenience that we desired for our astronomical 
preparations. The hotel was chosen by Mr. Gould after careful 
examination, and consultation with M. Bulard, formerly the 
director of the old Algerian observatory, both gentlemen having 
taken much trouble to ascertain that its roof was thoroughly 
well adapted for our requirements in an observing station. 

The roof of the hotel formed a rectangle of about 100 feet 
long by 60 broad, and was almost exactly oriented. Its centre 
was occupied by the inner quadrangle of the hotel, and by 
two rows of small chambers, several of which were put at our 
disposal as instrument rooms. 

On the afternoon of the eclipse, the observers were arranged 
as follows : The western side of the roof was occupied by 
Mr. T. Thorp, Mr. W. Andrews, with telescope and camera, 
Miss Martin-Leake with a three-inch telescope; Mr. and Mrs. 
Crommelin with several instruments ; and at the south-western 
corner, Mr. Hodge with a camera. Along the southern side 
were Mr. Ellis and Miss Edith Maunder, who were acting as 
time keepers ; Mr. Roger Du Camp who was photographing the 
harbour during the " Gathering Gloom " ; Mrs. Maunder with 



ALGIERS. 



63 



a four-inch equatorial telescope, kindly lent by Mr. W. Coleman, 
F.R.A.S., which was made to carry a pair of cameras, to 
which Miss C. O. Stevens gave the exposure; the Rev. C. D. P. 
Davies, with clock-driven equatorial and camera; Miss Irene 
Maunder with a four-inch photographic telescope, rigidly fixed 
myself with a pair of small cameras mounted on the Waters 
equatorial; and in the south-eastern corner, Mr. C. L. Brook, 
with a meteorological installation, and Mrs. Arthur Brook, with 
a prepared sheet for the observation of shadow bands. The Rev. 
Dr. Quilter, Mr. Vallack and Mr. Edmonds each provided with 
a small telescope were ranged along the eastern side. 

Mr. Alleu. 




Mrs. Allen, Mr. Roberts, Jr. 
Mr. Roberts. Miss Allen. 

GROUP OF OBSKRVKRS, TToTF.L CONTIXEXTAL, AUUKRS. 



It will be seen that most of us were engaged on one or both 
of two divisions of work, namely, photographing the corona or 
examining portions of it in the telescope. We were unable to 
arrange for a complete sketching party of four or five members, 
but fortunately possessed in Miss Stevens an artist who was 
able, in the 48 seconds between the uncovering and closing of 
Mrs. Maunder's cameras, to gather the very faithful impression 
which she has preserved in her drawing. But if we had only 
one sketcher engaged in naked-eye work, the other Algerian 
sections of the party paid special attention to it, and at Cemetery 
Hill, Cape Matifou, the Vice-Consul's house, and the Hotel 



64 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

Continental, combined drawings were given a very prominent 
place in the programme. 

The outlook from the roof was a varied one. On the west, 
north, and east we looked on the flat roofs of the neighbouring 
houses, and as our occupations kept us there through any and 
every hour of the day and night, it must have seriously interfered 
with the privacy of the " purdah " ladies. Especially towards 
the west, where the houses covered the hill rising up to the 
Kasbah, the roofs seemed to lie so close to each other that we 
could not divine where there was roadway or path lying between 
them. This was the Arab quarter, and the highways were 
stepped paths of a few feet width at their lowest and widest, 
and narrowed above to a cubit's breadth by the overhanging 
stories of the houses, so that the ancient edict forbidding the 
passage of horso and carriage seemed unnecessary, not to say 
ironical. The south side of the hotel formed, with the 
Mosque de la Pecherie, two sides of the Place du Gouverne- 
ment, where seemed to be gathered representatives of all the 
nations of the earth. Out beyond, the Djur-Djurra mountains 
cutting off the horizon, lay the Bay of Algiers, ending in the 
promontory of Cape Matifou. 

Those of us who had larger instruments, needing time and 
stars for their adjustment, installed ourselves in our selected 
places on the roof as soon as the telescopes arrived from the 
Custom House. The great point of doubt and difficulty was the 
weather. We had been disturbed to hear that for two or three 
days before our arrival there had been incessant storm and 
rain. The day we came was very fine but not perfect, the 
next day was not so good, the day after was bad, and Friday, 
May 25th, was as dull and cold and cloudv as any autumn day 
in England. Of the weather Mr. Crommelin says : " We must 
confess to some disappointment on the whole with the Algiers' 
sky. It was seldom of the intense deep blue which we had 
been led to expect; there was generally a distinct milky veil 
over it. The eclipse day was fortunately the very best during 
our stay, but even then though there were no clouds and no haze, 
there was a suspicion of milkiness in the blue, arising perhaps 
from scattered dust in the upper air." I cannot, however, quite 
agree with this, and one or two observations seem to me to 
indicate that the atmosphere after May 25th was in reality 
singularly free from dust. Thus on the morning of Saturday, 
May 26th, at about 10 o'clock in the morning, Mr. Brook saw 
the thread-like crescent of the moon only two days before it 
became new, in broad sunlight, with the unassisted eye, and 
pointed it out to several others of the party who also plainly 
discerned it. This is surely almost an unique observation, and 
points to great clearness of the atmosphere. Venus, too, was 
repeatedly picked up even at noon, but this is often done even in 
England. Again, on the day of the eclipse, at the instant of 
second contact, my wife who was observing Mercury in a four- 
inch telescope, saw that the general illumination of the field 



ALGIERS. 



65 



disappeared completely and at once with the last spark of sun- 
light, pointing to the fact that there was no appreciable dust or 
haze in the atmosphere to scatter light and cause glare. 

Mr. Crommelin took charge of our time department, he having 
one deck-watch kindly placed at his service by the Hydrographer, 
whilst a second had been lent me by the courtesy of Messrs. 
Usher and Cole. The error and rate of the deck-watches had 
been ascertained at Greenwich before our departure, and on the 
day after our coming to Algiers, Mr. Crommelin went to compare 
them with the standard clock at the Observatory at Bou-Zarea. 
He described the Observatory as beautifully situated at the top 




MB. EVERSHED OBSERVING WITH THE SPECTROSCOPE, 
PONT MAZAFRAN, ALGIERS. 

of the hill of Bou-Zarea, 1100 feet high, behind the town of 
Algiers, and commanding an unrivalled view of land, sea, and 
sky, the coast line being visible for 40 miles or more in each 
direction, whilst the blue rugged peaks of the Atlas made a 
magnificent background in the south. 

On Thursday afternoon I went with Mr. and Mrs. Crommelin 
to visit Mr. Evershed, at his station on the River Mazafran, by 
the noisy little steam tram that the French say they are going 
to run on, some day, to the Congo. At present it only extends 
just to the south bank of the Mazafran, some twenty miles 
from Algiers. Mr. Evershed's encampment was immediately to 
the north of the river, on rising ground, which commanded a 
good view of the sea, the river, and the hills of Le Sahel. Mr. 



66 THE TOTAL SOL ATI ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

Evershed and his brother had set up their hut on the ground of 
M. Alvado, a wine-grower of this district. The hut was at once 
bedroom, living-room, and observatory; more than half its 
scanty area being occupied by the great reflecting spectrograph. 
The light of the sun was reflected into this instrument by a 
coelostat placed just outside the hut, nnd the spectrum produced 
by it was one of magnificent brilliancy and proportions. A 
four inch telescope was also mounted near the coelostat outside 
the hut, and carried a small spectroscope. This was provided 
with a circular slit, which could be fitted to the sun's limb, and 
thus a large arc of the chromosphere could be seen at one time 
in the light of the C-line of hydrogen. M. Alvado had taken 
a great and decidedly intelligent interest in Mr. Evershed's 
instruments and their management, though they were necessarily 
utterly unlike in purpose and design anything of which he had 
had any experience. He passed one criticism on the spectroscope 
with which spectroscopists will be apt cordially to agree. As 
he noted the numerous and delicate little adjustments which 
the instrument required, he summed it up by observing that 
it was " a stack of fidgets." Mr. Evershed showed us some 
considerable prominences in this spectroscope, and kindly 
promised to send us a telegram on the morning of the eclipse 
giving the positions of the principal prominences in the order of 
magnitude. His telegram was of great service to us and to 
several of the party, as it enabled us to direct our attention 
without loss of time to the selected prominence. 

The nights of Friday, Saturday, and Sunday were very fine, 
and we made full use of them. The background of the sky 
was a deep black, and the Milky Way stood out with almost 
disconcerting vividness, for from its unfamiliar position we 
did not always recognise at the first glance what it was, and it 
looked perplexingly like cloud. Mr. Crommelin was especially 
struck with the constellations of Centaurus, Scorpio and 
Sagittarius, the larger portions of which are unseen in the 
northern latitudes of England. The waiters in the hotel took a 
deep interest in our doings, considering that they had a personal 
property in the success of the eclipse. One evening when we were 
engaged by the help and light of the stars in making some final 
adjustments, they formed a deputation to know " if the eclipse 
were coming off to-night?" There was one point, however, 
in which Nature lamentably failed to accord with their patriotic 
sense of the eternal fitness of things, and for which we could 
offer no excuse or consolation. " It could not surely be true" ; 
" Was it indeed true that the eclipse came to Spain before it 
passed through Algeria., and that it was total longer there?" 
We tried to comfort them, and succeeded in a measure by 
pointing out that Tripoli was in a, still worse case, and that 
Algiers possessed the unique distinction of being the one and 
only place with a fixed observatory over which the shadow 
passed. 

From Thursday on we had many visitors to see how the pre- 




parations were getting on; Mr. and Mrs. Allen, Mr. Roberts 
and his son, Mrs. Bevan and Miss M. A. Orr, all of whom were 
staying at the Hotel Continental, came at intervals to report 
progress. Herr Archenhold was at our hotel, but his telescope 
and camera had taken upon themselves to go on an independent 
journey, and he beguiled his enforced idleness by turning his 
hand to aiding in any adjustment where he might prove useful. 
Herr Leo Brenner and his wife were at the Hotel de FOpera, 
and raised our envy by his account of his beautiful Istrian 
skies. On Sunday morning the " Argonaut " came into harbour, 
and many of her passengers called that afternoon to ask advice as 
to what stations they should take up. A little later in the 
same day the Princess Amelie of Schleswig-Holstein, aunt of the 
Empress of Germany, and sister-in-law of Princess Christian, who 
was staying at our hotel, invited my wife and myself to visit 
her to explain the circumstances of the eclipse, and then came 
up to the roof to examine our instruments and arrangements. 

On one point our visitors were all agreed, that we had very 
useful astronomical accessories in the great chimney stacks 
that rose up to a height of about five feet from the roof, and 
that we turned them to good account. They made most useful 
piers or stays for the telescope stands, and their most serious 
defect was in the presence of the vent,, down which it was so 
easy to drop eye-pieces and screws and other useful or indis- 
pensable articles. Mr. Hodge turned even this defect to a good 
use by making the flue serve as a drop for his telescope weight. 

Our station on the hotel roof afforded us a unique effect. 
We were isolated, entirely so, from the spectators around; they 
could not approach us or interfere with us in any way. But 
the entire city was in full view, and north, south, east and west 
every housetop, as the eclipse wore on, became crowded with 
people. There must have been twenty or thirty thousand within 
our sight. 

The other sections of Algerian observers were thus distri- 
buted. At an early hour in the Hotel Continental, Mr. Roberts 
arranged his telescope on the roof, his son, Mrs. Allen and Miss 
Allen took up their positions for drawing quadrants of the 
corona; Mr. Allen fixed his camera, and white sheets and poles 
were placed ready for the observation of the shadow bands. 

Another contingent took their way up the hill to the villa 
of the British Vice-Consul, Mr. Drummond Hay. This consisted 
of Mrs. Bevan, who settled herself in one corner of the roof 
with drawing materials ; Mrs. Crewdson, who took her star maps 
to another; Miss Orr, high up among the chimneys, watch in 
hand gave the time; Miss M. A. Orr, who used a three-inch 
telescope; and Mr. Crewdson, who fixed his camera on the 
stone parapet. Venus was seen early in the partial phase, and 
was welcomed by Mrs. Crewdson as a guiding star in her search 
for lesser lights. The minute of totality seemed the shortest 
ever experienced; and to Mrs. Bevan the streamers appeared 



68 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 

much fainter than in the Indian Eclipse. Both Mrs. Bevan 
and Miss M. A. Orr agreed that the landscape effects were more 
weird and wonderful in Norway. 

One party from the " Argonaut " went to Cemetery Hill under 
the leadership of Col. Burton-Brown. With him were the 
Rev. A. E. Brisco Owen, Mr. J. Levick, Mr. Thompson, Mr. 
and Mrs. Kirkham, Dr. and Mrs. Connel, Mr. Robinson and 
others, who kindly helped in setting up the instruments, 
arranging the photographic table to 29 for cameras, and taking 
charge of the spectroscopic work and the camera obscura, formed 
by one of the telescopes equatorially mounted with an eyepiece 
projecting an image of the sun on to the ground glass about 
3^- in. diameter on a 9 in. field, so that all present might watch 
the progress of the earlier part of the eclipse. At totality Col. 
Burton-Brown himself took charge of the camera obscura, in 
which he hoped to get an enlarged picture of the corona at 
mid-totality, but which unfortunately was imperfect owing to 
vibration during exposure. 

The other contingent from the " Argonaut " went nearer the 
central line of totality, to Cape Matifou, where it again divided 
into two parts. Of these parties Mr. Krauss Nield has furnished 
the following account: "At 11 a.m. we set off for Cape Matifou 
in a specially chartered steam launch, with about 40 or 45 lady 
and gentleman observers. We had a pleasant 10 mile trip across 
the bay, and on arrival at Matifou left our instruments 1 in 
charge of two or three volunteers, and set out to select a suitable 
station for our observations. The first likely place we saw was the 
village washing shed, and Dr. Whichello and I went, much to the 
embarrassment of the inmates, to survey this, but although 
suitable in almost every other way, the front was at rather 
too great an angle to the direction which would be required. 
After this we noticed the village school, the playground of 
which seemed to contain all that we desired, and we at once 
started making enquiries. Dr. Whichello's French being vastly 
superior to mine, he acted as spokesman. He first of all asked 
some little children if the schoolmaster was in : ' No ; ' ' When 
will he be in?' 'Never.' 'What do> you mean?' 'There is 
no schoolmaster.' 'Who is in, then?' 'The schoolmistress.' 
After this we found the schoolmistress, and an obliging lady 
she proved to be. She said that we could use the playground 
and veranda of the school with the greatest of pleasure, and 
that she would send the children home early, so that they should 
be out of our way. The place was ideal for sketching and for 
the kinematograph, there being a shed, forms and desks in 
abundance, and a large level stone slab on which to place the 
instruments. There was only one serious drawback, and that 
was that those who were sketching had very little chance of 
seeing the general effect of the eclipse on the landscape. But 
it was, probably, impossible to have every advantage in one 
place, and the comfort of desks, together with the necessity of 
plumb lines, outweighed other considerations, and a large portion 




INSCEIPTION ON THE MOLE, ALGIERS HAEBOTTK. 




ALGIERS FROM THE HILL BEHIND THE CITY. 



ALGIERS. 



71 



of the party decided to stay in this station. About a dozen or 
more, however, went further up the hill to the edge of the 
cliffs, where they would have a chance of seeing the shadow 
coming across the sea. We were thus divided into two parties 
on the Cape, and each party observed the eclipse very comfort- 
ably and successfully. The party on the hill consisted of 
Mr. S. Evershed, who observed the " flash-spectrum/' and was 
so enabled to call the exact instant of totality; Mr. E. Dickson, 
the time-caller; Mr. T. A. Dickson, who has obtained some very 
successful photographs ; Mr. J. E. Pearce, who saw the corona 




Mr. F. W. Longbottom. Mr. H. Hassall. Miss Jaiieway. 

Mr. W. E. Cooper, F.E.A.S. Dr. H. Wliichello. Miss Ward. 

Mrs. Hassall. Dr. Heywood Smith, M.D. 

SKETCHING PAKTY, CAPE MATII-OU, ALOIERS. 



for some time after totality; Mr. Kipling Booth,. Dr. E. P. 
Smith, Mr. E. B. Vignoles, and several others. Among those 
at the school were the following: Mr. C. M. Hepworth, with 
his kinem atograph ; Mr. F. W. Longbottom, who has obtained 
some good though small scale photographs of the corona; Dr. 
Heywood Smith, Dr. H. Whichello, and Mr. W. E. Cooper, 
F.R.A.S., who together with myself devoted the time to sketching 
the corona. There were several ladies in both parties who 
helped not a little in the general work, and the following handed 
me carefully drawn quadrants of the corona : The Misses 
Janeway, E. Slater, J. Slater, and K. Slater, E. Statham, 
E. Thorold, C. Ward, and L. Vignoles." 



72 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1900. 

To return to our own party at the Hotel de la Regence, 
the hours immediately before the eclipse seemed more than 
sufficiently filled by putting finishing touches of lamp black on 
the inside of cameras and of telescope tubes, and in the cleaning 
of lenses, and the definite work of observation began with my 
wife and myself at first contact, for we wished to take a series 
of photographs right through the partial phase. 

As we were thus occupied Mr. Crommelin very kindly under- 
took to watch the eclipse through this earlier phase, and to 
give warning to the observers five minutes, one minute, and 
ten seconds before the commencement of totality, whilst I, 
taking up the watch at the ten seconds signal, was to call at 
the instant when totality was complete. I, therefore, give the 
account of the progress of this portion of the eclipse in Mr. 
Crommelin's own words : " The first contact and the progress 
of the eclipse were observed by projection through the telescope 
on a sheet of cardboard to avoid fatiguing the eye. Mr. Brook 
kindly gave assistance in noting the time of first contact. The 
exact point of contact was marked on the card, and at 3h. 5m. 14s. 
Greenwich time a small but perfectly definite encroachment was 
observed which rapidly increased. True geometrical contact 
must have occurred a few seconds before the time noted. There 
were two small spot groups on the sun, and the times of 
disappearance of some of the spots were noted. The largest 
spot began to disappear at 3h. 29m. 7s., and was com- 
pletely covered 39 seconds later. We used a paper screen 
over the telescope to shield the cardboard sheet from 
direct sunlight, and we noticed that the light through a small 
aperture in this screen produced a crescent-shaped image of the 
sun on the cardboard a miniature of that formed by the 
telescope itself. At 4h. 4m. we noticed a very decided decrease 
in the illumination of the landscape ; the colouring also seemed 
to have undergone a change and to be rather more yellow 
than ordinary sunlight, but this may have been fancy. An 
examination of the relative brightness of different regions of the 
sky, showed that the sky near the horizon was a light blue, the 
sky to thei west of the zenith a darker blue, and that to the east 
of the zenith darkest of all. 

" It was now nearly time for the first of the three signals 
which I had arranged to give viz., five minutes, one minute, 
and ten seconds, before the commencement of totality. No 
great precision was required in the first two of these, so it was 
sufficient to go by the predicted time of the beginning of totality. 
But it was desirable that the ten-second signal should not be 
more than a second or two in error. This was secured by 
calculating beforehand the length of the diminishing crescent, 
and marking this length on the cardboard screen. It was found 
practicable to determine this instant pretty accurately, and 
the call of ' Ten ' was just 9 seconds before the last ray dis- 
appeared, and Mr. Maunder shouted ' Go.' 

" The five and one minute signals were made by ringing a 



ALGIERS. 



73 



large bell belonging to the hotel a long ring for the first, and 
a short sharp ring for the second. Between the two bells we 
devoted our attention to the aspect of the town roof rising 
behind roof up the steep slope, nearly all crowded with sight- 
seers, as was also the Place du G-ouvernernent at our feet. The 




STREET LEADING TO THE AEAB QUARTER, ALGIERS. 



These streets are about 12 feet wide, with the gutter down the middle. This 
street leads up to the Kasbah. 



crowd at first seemed somewhat flippant, and the first bell was 
greeted with derisive jeers from a group across the street. But 
the onward swoop of the darkness had a sobering effect, and 
just before totality a deep swelling murmur of wonder, admirar 
tion and fear arose from the entire city." 



74 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1900. 

Another observer, Miss Irene Maunder, describes the effect 
of totality : " A bell rang and we all hurried to our places, for 
we knew there were but five minutes to totality. Another 
bell, but one minute more. The sky was deep purple, while 
over the sea was a strange light on the horizon, a compromise 
between a thunderstorm and a sunset. The colour faded 
from, the sea and trees, a shouting and wailing arose from the 
square below, the light was fading; suddenly the moon slipped 
over the sun and the eclipse was total. ' Go !' shouted a loud 
voice; a metronome began to beat seconds, and as its bell rang 
at each sixth stroke, my sister called the time. ' One ! Two ! 
Three ! Four ! Five ! Six !' There ! my photographs were 
taken, and now I could look up ! I shall never forget the 
sight. A deep purple sky, a black globe, surrounded by a 
crimson glow, and above and below it a milk-like flame stretch- 
ing its long streamers away into the purple. The darkness, 
the cold wind, the silent workers around me, and the shouting 
crowd below all tended to make this strange and glorious sight 
still more impressive, and I found myself stretching out my 
arms to that exquisite corona in a perfect ecstasy. Suddenly 
the moon slipped off the other side of the sun, and out he 
shone in a blaze of light, or so it seemed in comparison with 
his eclipse. An Englishman cheered. Some Frenchmen 
clapped. Totality was over !" 



CHAPTER IX. 

TIME OBSERVATIONS. 

UNTIL comparatively recently, until in fact the great eclipse 
of 1868, when the spectroscopic method of observing the pro- 
minences in full sunshine was first brought into actual operation, 
the chief observations made at an eclipse were those of the 
times of contacts. And these were very useful, as they afforded 
the means for correcting the Tables of the sun and of the moon, 
and for ascertaining the diameters of both bodies. In more 
recent years the greater interest attaching to the physical 
observations possible in an eclipse the study of the corona and 
prominences; the spectrum of the "Flash"; have pushed 
contact observations rather into the background ; and on many 
occasions they have been more or less neglected by professional 
astronomers. It is much to be regretted that this is so, and it 
is to be hoped that the experience of the late eclipse will lead 
to the restoration of contact determinations to the position of 
an essential item in every eclipse programme. The precise 
determination of the longitude and latitude of the observing 
station must necessarily accompany such observations. 

Mr. C. T. WHITMELL has carefully collected in the annexed 
Report all the observations of contacts or duration of totality 
that were available, with the result of showing clearly that 
the duration of totality was less than that predicted by the 
British "Nautical Almanac" ; Mr. H. EVERSHED adds a brief note 
with reference to the failure of the eclipse to become total at 
his station on the Mazafran ; and Mr. A. C. D. CROMMELIN 
explains the probable reason of the over-estimate, in the 
" Nautical Almanac," of the duration of totality. 



DURATION OP TOTALITY AND TIMES or CONTACTS.* 

THE following Table contains such particulars of times of contacts 
and duration of totality as I have been able to obtain. Green- 
wich longitude and mean time are used throughout. Some of 
the data have been taken from Spanish, French, American, and 
English publications; others have been kindly communicated to 
me by the observers, for whose help I am very grateful. 

*By C. T. WHITMELL. 
75 



76 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 





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Predicted, N.A. 
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A. Flint 


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H. Slade 


F. Miranda 

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A. Downing 
T. Weir 


Predicted, Madri 
Sr. Ventosa 
Sr. Puente 


Predicted, N.A. 
C. Whitmell and 


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78 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1900. 

Senor Iniguez, of the Madrid Observatory, and the Koyal 
Geographical Society (through Mr. W. H. Wesley), have cour- 
teously sent me the longitudes and latitudes of several of the 
localities. I wish also to thank Dr. C. A. Young for the 
" Princeton Bulletin," with an account of the observations at 
Wadesboro', N.C., U.S.A., and M. le Comte de la Baume 
Pluvinel, for his very useful chart of the region of total eclipse 
in the Iberian Peninsula. 

It will be seem that the Table is far from complete. For many 
of the stations I fear that the longitudes and latitudes may 
require some correction. It is obvious also that only in very few 
cases can the observed times be regarded as absolutely correct. 
But the difference between the times of second and third contact, 
i.e., the duration of totality, is probably very near the truth. 

In some instances, observers in Spain have not stated what 
time they used, so in these cases I have assumed the time to be 
that of Madrid. For the future I hope that all observers will 
endeavour to give full and accurate information as to their 
observing stations, and the times of contact. 

With regard to the longitudes and the times of commencement 
of totality, there are some anomalies which I cannot explain, e.g., 
Nos. 19 to 23. These may be due to watch errors. 

It will be noticed that in every case for which the predicted 
and the observed duration of totality are given, the latter falls 
short, sometimes considerably short, of the former. The 
" Nautical Almanac " predictions were accompanied by a caution 
to the effect that the predicted duration might be as much as 
three seconds too long. It was thirty seconds too long for 
Mazafran, for the shadow never got there. 

No. 3, Wadesboro'. According to Prof. C. A. Young's obser- 
vations, first contact occurred at Oh. 36m. 2s., and fourth contact 
at 3h. om. 40s., the discrepancies, in his opinion, being due to 
errors in the lunar tables. 

No. 11, Plasencia. For the Palacio de Mirabel, Senor Iniguez 
gives longitude 6 5' 36" ; latitude 40 1' 47". 

No. 13. Mr. Weir informs me that he is not sure of the 
duration of totality. He gives 84s. and 88s. as limits, with an 
inclination to consider the latter as probably the more correct. 

Nos. 13s and 13c, Berrocalillo. The following note is a 
translation of a passage from a most interesting pamphlet on the 
eclipse, by Senor Iniguez: The manifest contradiction between 
the times assigned for the second contact by the two observers, 
results from the method used by each. Sr. Ventosa gives, as 
the commencement of totality, the moment when the lunar disc 
showed itself as a complete circle ; Sr. Puente, when he saw 
disappear the last ray glancing from the last bead of light. It 
should not be forgotten that the moon's border is not perfectly 
smooth, but is serrated, owing to great lunar mountains, and it 
is precisely in this eclipse that many observers have pointed out 
the existence of marked inequalities in that lunar border 
which entered first on the sun. By all accounts, observation 




TIME OBSERVATIONS. 



79 



indicates for this eclipse a duration somewhat, though but little, 
less than that calculated. A thorough discussion of the cir- 
cumstances, accompanying the phenomenon, will show to what 
causes are to be attributed this difference." 

No. 32, Mazafran. Mr. Evershed writes as follows : " From 
accounts of observers at my station, and from a careful examina- 
tion of the series of photographs obtained, I find that at mid- 
eclipse one small point of sunlight was shining. This point 
appeared at position-angle 195, at least 45 seconds before mid- 
eclipse, and persisted in the same place until it was merged in the 




MR. AXD MRS. CROMMELIX, HOTEL DE LA EEGENCE, ALGIERS. 



reappearing arc of sunlight, a second or two after mid-eclipse. 
Now this point, appearing on the western side of the sun before 
mid-eclipse, must have been due to a very deep valley in the 
moon ; but, according to Beer and Miidler's map, the general level 
of the moon's south limb is higher than the average, that region 
being occupied by the Leibnitz mountains. Whether the bottom 
of the valley, which let in the sunlight, is above or below the 
mean level of the lunar surface, it is impossible to say, but it 
just prevented the eclipse being total at my camp. The actual 
edge of the moon's shadow was clearly seen upon the sea, and 
it struck the coast very close indeed to my station, within a 



80 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

quarter of a mile on the north side of it, according to a trust- 
worthy observer." 

By computation. Mr. Evershed's camp should have been If 
miles within the southern boundary of the shadow. 

No. 15, Navalmoral. For this station I computed the following 
additional data, based upon the "Nautical Almanac": Sun's 
altitude at totality, 39; azimuth, 3 south of west. At 
2h. 57m. G.M.T. the moon's geocentric distance was about 
233,087 miles, and her synodic velocity about 2191 miles an hour. 
The observer's velocity, along the parallel of latitude at Naval- 
moral, is 795 miles an hour. At totality the apparent semi- 
diameter of the moon was 16' 6" - 0, and that of the sun 15' 46"'6, 
the difference being only 19"'4. 

The diameter of the umbra, projected into a circle upon a 
plane through Navalmoral, perpendicular to the shadow-axis, 
measures about 43 miles. But, upon the surface of the ground, 
this umbra was really a kind of oval with its longest diameter 
lying nearly W. and E., and considerably exceeding 43 miles, 
being probably about 67 miles. The velocity of this shadow 
along the surface was about 42 miles a minute. The shadow 
path made an angle of about 20, N. of W. and S. of E., with 
the observer's parallel, and, on the assumption of 87s. for totality, 
that diameter of the oval, actually traversed by a spectator upon 
the earth's surface, would be about 61 miles. We possessed no 
means of obtaining Greenwich time with accuracy, but Mr. 
Howarth had with him a rated watch, and by this he estimates 
the beginning of totality at 4h. 6m. 56s., and the end at 
4h. 8m. 16s. G.M.T. If these times are to be relied upon, totality 
began 44s. later and ended 37s. later than the predicted times. 
The corresponding Madrid times would be 3h. 52m. 11s., and 
3h. 53m. 31s. Navalmoral time is 7m. 31s. earlier than Madrid, 
and 22m. 16s. earlier than Greenwich, the difference between 
Greenwich and Madrid being 14m. 45s. About 2h. 49m. p.m., 
first contact had been noted from a carriage window of the train 
that brought us from Madrid. I pass on to consider the duration 
of totality. Observing the solar spectrum with a spectroscopic 
opera-glass, to be described hereafter, I gave the signals " go," 
and " gone," to Dr. Stokes, who> had an accurate stop watch, 
made for estimating races. The duration was exactly 80 seconds, 
or 7 seconds less than that predicted by the " Nautical Almanac." 
Precisely the same duration was noted by three other observers, 
Mr. Howarth, Mr. Southall, and the Rev. S. J. Johnson, using 
only the unaided eye. 

Assuming the orbital path of the moon, and the N.A. 
diameter of the sun, to be correct, there are two possible explana- 
tions of the loss of 7 seconds; (1) the N.A. diameter 
of the moon may be too large; (2) the adopted position of 
Navalmoral may be incorrect, so that it was not really on the 
central line. If the error is due entirely to (1) I compute that 
the moon's diameter was 3^ miles (3" at mean distance) too 
large, and this seems unlikely. If the error is due entirely to 



TIME OBSERVATIONS. 81 

(2), then Navalmoral was about 8^ miles off the central line, 
and this also seems improbable. 

If we reduce the predicted duration to 83s., the error in the 
moon's diameter is reduced to 2 miles (1"'7 at mean distance), and 
the loss of the remaining 3 seconds could be accounted for, if 
Navalmoral were supposed to be about 5^ miles off the central 
line, the position, error being mainly in latitude. The diameter 
of the projected umbra would now be only 41 miles. The sun's 
own circumference has not a sharp geometrical boundary, and 
it is possible that the real diameter of the visible photosphere 
varies slightly. Irregularities in the lunar limb may also account 
for something. 

The factors connected with a solar eclipse at a given place 
are : 

(1) The semi-diameter of the sun. 

(2) The semi-diameter and distance of the moon. 

(3) The direction and velocity of the moon's movement. 

(4) The earth's place in her orbit, and the observer's position 
on the earth. 

(5) The direction and velocity of the observer's movement. 

If (1), (4), (5) are assumed to be correctly known, then errors 
in (2) and (3) can be determined by accurate observations of 
the times of contact at the various stations. Hence the import- 
ance of such observations. 

It is generally supposed that the discrepancies between pre- 
diction and observation, which come out so plainly in the case of 
the present eclipse, are due mainly to some error in the assumed 
semi-diameter of the moon. 

The present values of the geocentric mean semi-diameters of 
the moon, used in computing eclipses, are as follows : 

American "Ephemeris, 15' 31"'76; British "Nautical Almanac," 
15' 32"-65; French "Connaissance des Temps," J5' 32"'83. For 
this eclipse, the respective values, at the time of E.A. con- 
junction, were : American Ephemeris, 15' 55"'0; British "Nautical 
Almanac," 15' 55"'89; French "Connaissance des Temps," 15' 55"'9 ; 
the American value being thus 0"'89 smaller than the British. 

It is to be hoped that the records of this eclipse, imperfect as 
they are, may lead to more accurate predictions in the future. 

In conclusion I may add that this was an eclipse of somewhat 
brief totality. The maximum duration (about 134s. by N.A. 
data) occurred, unfortunately, far out in the Atlantic, near longi- 
tude 45 1' W., and latitude 44 57' N. The time was about local 
noon (2h. 57m. G.M.T.). 

C. T. WHITMELL. 

No. 20, near Manzanares. Mr. KEATLEY MOORE in his report 
gives the following additional particulars as to the time deter- 
minations made there : " Every care was taken to check the 
rating of the chronometer carried by the party first bv 



82 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 



daily comparisons with the chronometers of the ' Britannia ' 
(P. & O.), on, the way out to Gibraltar, then at Madrid by com- 
parison with the obsiervatory clock (by Dent), with the courteous 
help of Senor Ventosa, and finally on returning to Gibraltar, by 
comparison with the chronometers of H.M.S. ' Isis.' This chrono- 
meter was found to be an excellent instrument, maintaining a 
very even rate; from first to last it altered its rate only 1.3 
seconds. It was lent to the party by Messrs. Bowman, its makers. 
It was of course of the first importance to know the local time 
correctly in order to check the computed G.M.T. times of the 
eclipse. Equal altitudes of the sun were therefore taken, by 




Miss EDITH MAVXDEB CALLING TIME, HOTEL DE LA KEGENCE, ALGIERS. 

sextant and artificial horizon, on both 27th and 28th May, at 
M'anzanares. 

Being able to place dependence on these observations the party 
had the presumption to supply the Madrid Observatory with a 
correction of the position of Manzanares, which is mapped about 
1\ miles too far south, and 3 miles too far west, taking the fine 
church ' Parroquia de la Asuncion ' in the market place, as the 
centre of the town. 

Longitude, really 3 19' 12" W., not 3 22' 23" as mapped at 
Madrid. 

Latitude, really 39 2' 3" N., not 38 50' 39" as on the map of 
the Royal Geographical Society, London. 

The limit of error in each case is + 30". 




TIME OBSERVATIONS. 



83 



The longitude and latitude of our tower were 3 18' 54" W and 
39 1' 50" N. 

" These discrepancies materially altered both the anticipated 
times and the anticipated duration of the eclipse." 



NOTE ON THE ECLIPSE AT MAZAFBAN CAMP.* 

MONS. ALVADO, whom we asked to observe the duration of 
totality, was observing the sun through the sextant telescope 




MR. EVERSHED'S CAMP, PONT MAZAFBAN, ALGIERS. 
Showing Coelostat and Camera-end of Reflecting Spectrograph. 

furnished with a red shade on the eyepiece. He had a watch 
in his hand, as had several other onlookers. At the moment 
when only as much light as a " pin head " remained, Alvado 
called out " contez" but no sooner had he pronounced the word, 
when it began to get light again. He stated that the remaining 
spot of light was red, but this was no doubt due to the shade 
glass of his telescope. His wife called it " a speck of yellow 
light." 

Mons. Laurence, Maire de Kolea, and Mons. le Directeur des 
Contributions, both confirmed Alvado's statement. The latter 

*By H. EVERSHED. 



84 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 

stated that had we been 200 metres further north-east we should 
have had totality, for he saw the shadow passing over the sand 
dunes in that direction. 

Mons. Alvado stated further that when he glanced down 
at the moment when the eclipse was almost total he observed a 
curious streak, as of moonlight, " qui frappe sur la mer," in a 
line from our hut to a point 20 or 30 metres south of the mouth 
of the Mazafran River. All to the right of this streak was 
dark. 

In the evening the Arabs sat talking with Alvado of the 
event, and Bel Kadir the berger declared that some little piece 
at El Simpsli remained, as much he said as a " garro " (cigarette). 
This statement was contradicted by the other Arabs (our neigh- 
bour Larbi and others). These men were hoeing maize 500 
metres north-east of our hut, and they all declared that the 
whole sun was obscured for a moment. 

The farmer (Alvado) joined in the conversation, and told me 
what the Arabs were arguing about, and it seems the berger 
that day had taken his cattle: south of the Mazafran Bridge to 
a point about 500 metres south of our hut and near the river 
bank. 

The postmaster of Zeralda (a village 3f kilometres north-east 
of our camp) was also requested by us to observe the duration 
of totality, and he with the help of the letter carrier, a stop 
watch, and smoked glass, determined the duration to be 9 
seconds. This observation he said we could absolutely rely upon 
as being correct. 

[This observation, if correct, would make our camp about 
two kilometres outside the shadow, but it is not confirmed by 
the durations found at Algiers and Cape Matifou. The argument 
of the Arabs would show, too, that the actual limit of the 
shadow must have passed very close to the camp. It is perhaps 
a little tantalizing to know that a small plantation of olive 
trees to the north-east, which we originally chose as a good 
camping ground, and afterwards abandoned, was actually just 
within the zone of totality. J. EVERSHED.] 



NOTE ON THE PROBABLE REASON OF THE OVER-ESTIMATE OF THE 
DURATION OF TOTALITY IN THE " NAUTICAL ALMANAC." * 

THE experience of all the observers, both in India in 1898 and 
at the recent eclipse, showed that the duration of totality was 
shorter by four or five seconds than that predicted by the 
" Nautical Almanac." 

A probable explanation of this fact occurred to me a short 
time ago. It is a matter of common knowledge that the moon's 

* BA- A. C. D, 



TIME OBSERVATIONS. 



85 



limb is exceedingly irregular, being broken by mountains and 
valleys. I was greatly struck with this irregularity at the recent 
eclipse. Twenty seconds before totality the disappearing crescent 
began to be broken into segments by the lunar mountains, and 
a few seconds before totality there was really no semblance of 




DIAGKAM ILLVSTKATING ON AN EXAGGERATED SCALE THE IRREGfLAlUTIES ON 
THE MOON'S LIMB. 

The diameter of the middle circle is that deduced from occultations. 

The diameter of the inner circle is that which is effective for producing total 
eclipses of the Sun. 



a crescent left, but irregular patches and beads of light. The 
lost ray of the disappearing sun would shine through the deepest 
valley that there happened to be on the moon's limb near the 
point of disappearance. 

In the diagram I have drawn three circles, the outermost 
drawn through the highest mountains on the moon's limb, 



86 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 



the innermost through the deepest valleys, and the third 
half way between these. 

Then it seems clear that the discussion of a large number 
of occupations of stars at various points of the limb will give 
a diameter corresponding very approximately to that of the 




STBEET i>* THE AEAB QUARTER, ALGIERS. 

These arc narrower than those lower down, and goods are carried there by 
donkeys with a pack on each side. The streets are so narrow that it is difficult 
for two laden donkeys to pass in them. The photogi-aph shows a woman at a 
fruit and milk stall, stooping to escape the camera, and in the background is 
seen one of the smaller mosques. 

middle circle. Now the mean diameter of the moon used for 
eclipses and occultations in the " Nautical Almanac/' viz., 
31' 5".30, was deduced by Dr. L. Struve, from a discussion of 
the occultations of a large number of stars during the lunar 
eclipses of 1884 and 1888. Hence we may assume that this 
diameter corresponds to the middle circle on the diagram. 



TIME OBSERVATIONS. 87 

But since we do not call the eclipse total so long as any portion 
of the sun is visible, even through a lunar valley, it seems clear 
that the effective diameter for producing a total eclipse will be 
less than Struve's value, and will approach more or less closely 
to the inner circle, according to the depth of the valleys near the 
points of second and third contact. Mr. Seabroke has pointed 
out that we do not see a valley on the limb of its full depth, 
unless it is pointing straight towards the earth. But out of the 
numerous valleys that exist there are probably a few that point 
thus. Moreover, a depth of 5000 feet below the mean level is all 
that is required to produce the observed phenomenon; and 
when we consider the great irregularity of the moon's surface, 
and the great height of some of its mountains, it appears quite 
probable that some valleys may be much deeper than 5000 feet, 
so that even when their apparent depth is reduced in the 
manner indicated by Mr. Seabroke, it would still amount to the 
necessary quantity. 

The American ephemeris uses 3L' 3". 52 as the moon's mean 
diameter for eclipses and occultations. And the predictions of 
this ephemeris have been very nearly accurate both in 1898 
and 1900. Had Mr. Evershed gone by it instead of the 
" Nautical Almanac," he would have placed himself two* miles 
further north, and would have obtained several seconds of 
totality. 

Considering the great importance of predicting the duration 
and boundaries of totality with all the accuracy possible, I 
would suggest that the diameter of the American ephemeris 
(or even a slightly smaller value for perfect safety) should be 
used by the " Nautical Almanac " in the prediction of total 
eclipses. Both the above ephemerides use the same value for 
the sun's mean diameter, viz., 31' 59". 26, deduced by Prof. 
Auwers from heliometer measures, which is probably very near 
the truth. 

Curiously enough the American ephemeris for 1902 and 
subsequent years uses 31' 5". 10 as the moon's mean diameter for 
eclipses and occultations. I regard this as a distinctly retrograde 
step as regards total eclipses, though it is probably an improve- 
ment as regards occultations. 

A. C. D. CROMMELIN. 



CHAPTER, X. 

THE CORONA. 

IT is curious how the centre of interest in eclipses has shifted in 
the course of time. As noted elsewhere, our forefathers were 
chiefly impressed by the darkness, and by the appearance of 
stars in the daytime. When we come to the earlier eclipses of 
the present century, we find that the " Red Flames " monopolised 
almost all the notice ; and it is only within the last forty years 
or so that the corona, which is to us to-day emphatically the 
feature of the eclipse, has received much study. How it was 
that the few stars, faintly shining, or the prominences, so much 
smaller than the corona, drew all eyes, whilst the corona, so 
beautiful, so mysterious, so unique, hardly obtained any record, 
is very difficult to explain. But the king has come to his own 
at last, and this truly royal splendour is now the chief object 
of study and of admiration, on each occasion that the complete 
withdrawal of sunlight permits it to be se'en. 

Though the entire length of time during which the corona 
has been visible, since eclipses first began to be studied with any 
degree of scientific precision, has but little exceeded a single hour, 
yet that study was very soon rewarded by a most striking dis- 
covery, the full significance of which we have still to seek. In 
1 878, it was first suggested, and every eclipse since has confirmed 
that suggestion, that the form of the corona changes in sympathy 
with the greater or less development of solar spots. This 
relationship has been so completely accepted, that M. Hansky, 
after the successful Russian expedition to Novaya Zemlaia in 
1896, did not hesitate to forecast the form which it would present 
in 1900, as may be seen in the accompanying plate. The fore- 
cast did not, of course, go much into detail, but is substantially 
correct. It shows two great arms, directed east and west, in 
the line of the sun's equator; the eastern arm showing a ten- 
dency to taper, whilst round the north and south poles, were a 
number of distinctly separated plumes or aigrettes. 

Such were, indeed, the chief features of the corona of 1900. 
In technical language it was " of a pronounced minimum type " ; 
as was to be expected when the spots on the sun's surface had 
shrunk to something like one-twentieth of the area which they 
had covered at the maximum, seven years before. 

From a great number of descriptions we may select a short 
one by Prof. MOVE (Elche) : " To the naked eye and opera-glass 
the moon was perfectly dark and black, surrounded by a circle 



THE 

UNIVERSITY I 

OF 

c 




THE CORONA. 91 

of silvery white, almost dazzlingly bright, and recalling the 
text-book diagrams of an annular eclipse. It was the inner 
corona. To the right and left of the sun, two immense 
streamers, pearly as to tinge, were seen, tolerably bright and 
fading away gradually at their edges. They were on the ecliptic, 
or very nearly so, their length was two or three solar diameters ; 
the western streamer being noticed nearly up to Mercury, 2 
from the sun. The ogival form of the streamers was very 
conspicuous; each seemed to consist of two curved rays with 
a central rift. Round the sun's pole there were only faint and 
short plumes; a typical form of a minimum year." 

The estimates as to the colour of the corona varied consider- 
ably. Mr. KEAUSS NIELD, for the party at Cape Matifou, 
says : 

The corona appeared to me to be almost if not quite colourless, 
the rays had a silvery glow which was particularly delicate and 
difficult to describe. At an exhibition a little while ago, I saw, 
just before twilight was over, a long ray from a powerful 
search-light, and it struck me at once, that here, toned down by 
the daylight that still remained, was reproduced more nearly 
than in anything else I had ever noticed, the exact tone of the 
colour of the corona. Most of the members of our party described 
it as either " silvery and colourless," or " very pale blue." 

Col. BURTON-BROWN (Cemetery Hill) reports that " the corona 
was pearly white, but not so pearly as in December, 1870. The 
main corona was visible .about a moon's radius round it, pretty 
regularly grading off from the limb outwards; it was rather 
brighter on the apparent right side near the moon during the 
whole time. The streamers and, in a slighter degree, the outer 
corona appeared slightly tinted with a peacock green colour. 

" The sky was perfect. Every anticipation as to Algiers being 
an ideal station was verified, and the glorious phenomenon more 
than ever confirmed the impression which I expressed to Sir 
G. B. Airy after the total eclipse of 1870, "That the sun 
appeared like an enormous electrical machine, emitting a flow 
of luminous electricity into space from every part of it, and if 
brighter round one part of the moon than round another part, 
it seemed due to th brightness of the radiating surface, and 
partly to extra energy therefrom." 

Mr. WALTER MAUNDER (Hotel de la Regence, Algiers), recalling 
the eclipses of 1886 and 1898, considered, that all three coronae 
were white in colour, but that whilst the two earlier eclipses 
were white, and somewhat of the tendency to a steely blue which 
we see in the electric arc, the present corona was rather of the 
whiteness of ivory, a somewhat warmer tone with a slight 
tendency to yellow being noticeable. This impression was con- 
firmed by Prof. H. H. Turner, who had seen the same three 
eclipses, but, on the other hand, the observers at Manzanares 
considered that the whiteness of the corona tended distinctly to 
the bluish side and away from the yellowish side. " If we were 
not afraid of indicating too pronounced a colour, we might say 



92 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

that it had an exceedingly faint amethystine tinge. The 
returning sunlight looked magnificently orange-yellow at its first 
appearance, by contrast : proving the tendency towards amethyst 
of the coronal light. Mr. Moor who was in India in 1898 
judges this corona to be of precisely the same colour as that 
seen in India; and the yellowness of the returning sunlight was 
equally marked there." 

Other observers varied greatly as to their estimate of the 
colour. Thus at Navalmoral^ Mr. HOWAETH called the corona 
" a circle of soft silvery light," Mr. LA GUIDARA, " dazzling 
silvery light " ; Mr. SOUTHALL, " intense white, the streamers 
appeared of a creamy tint " ; Mr. BUCKLEY, " close to its rim 
the sun was encircled by a yellow light " ; Mr. W. F. STANLEY 
found " the moon dark red or brown, a sharp, clear aureola 
surrounded it about 2' in width, this had a slightly yellow 
tone, the corona was distinctly bluish " ; Mr. and Mrs. CON- 
STABLE at Talavera, " the moon, as in a total lunar eclipse, 
appeared like transparent copper, with a lighter tone near its 
limb, the bright shafts of the corona had a, yellowish tone near 
the sun." 

At Ovar, the Rev. A. MORFORD thought the colour of the corona 
had to the naked eye a violet tinge; and Mr. GIBBS at the same 
place calls the corona " pearly white," and speaking of the 
brightness of the inner corona, uses the same simile as Prof. 
Moye, that it almost gave the idea that the eclipse was not total 
but annular. 

On the whole it is clear that the corona may properly be 
described as " white " ; the slight creamy tinge being perhaps 
most noted by those 1 observers who paid most attention to the 
inner region, the slight bluish tinge by those who observed 
rather the outer extensions. 



THE CORONA SEEN OUT OF TOTALITY. 

A FEW observations were made of the corona, either before 
totality was complete, or after it was over. In most cases it 
could only be traced for a few seconds ; Mr. Weir's observation 
being a most remarkable exception. As it stands it appears 
perfectly definite, but the length of time out of totality is so 
considerable that it seems safer to suppose that the appearance 
was due to some reflection in the camera. 

Mr. WEIR (Plasencia) : When adjusting the camera for 
photographing the total phase, quite ten minutes before 
totality fully three-fourths of the sun's diameter being 
obscured we were astonished, on closely pbserving the 
image on the focussing screen, to find on the south-western 
side lines of light which evidently proceeded from the 
sun. Although aware of the delicate nature of the coronal 



THE CORONA. 93 

rays, we could imagine this to be nothing less than early indica- 
tions of the corona itself, and were thus prepared for the form 
assumed by that section of the corona when totality came on. 
Our conjecture may or may not have been correct, but the facts 
were clear. The rough note taken at the time, and written out 
immediately after, reads, " Saw the appearance of the corona 
at underside of sun quite ten minutes before totality fuzzy 
appearance witii lines of light." This seems to show that given 
the requisite conditions, viz., a suitable atmosphere and the 
moon favourably placed relative to the stronger coronal rays, 
these may be seen even if the eclipse be not total. 

Mr. BACKHOUSE (Plasencia) : When totality was over a com- 
plete continuous ring continued visible round the moon, the 
brightest part of the corona being visible I should think three 
or four seconds afterwards. I believe I saw the ring complete 
also before totality actually commenced. 

Mr. J. E. PEAECE (Cape Matifou) observed the corona with a 
binocular, and hiding the bright crescent of the sun with part 
of the instrument, saw the corona from eight seconds before 
the commencement of totality until 4h. 20m. 20s., G.M.T., or 
1 minute 47^ seconds after the sun's light had reappeared. 



DRAWINGS OF THE CORONA.* 

OBEYING the wish of the Editor, though I unfeignedly regret 
the work was not given to more capable hands, I have carefully 
studied the very numerous sketches he has sent me, and venture 
to make a few observations upon them. From the whole mass, 
since all could not be published, I have selected for reproduction 
eleven which seem fairly representative. Of these, Miss Stevens's 
beautiful sketch, much softer and more beautiful in the original 
than in the reproduction, having already appeared as a full-page 
illustration in " Knowledge/' is inserted here by kind permission 
of the proprietors of that journal ; and Mr. Moore's sketch 
(possibly imbued with the perverseness of its author) refused 
to come into line with the rest : these two, therefore, are printed 
by themselves. The remaining nine have all been brought to 
one size by the photographer that is to say, the diameter of 
the moon is made f inch in each case. I have rotated to the 
left all the eleven sketches from the position as seen in the sky, 
and drawn by the sketchers, so as to bring the sun's axis vertical, 
and I have added Mercury, at 7.3 lunar radii from the moon's 
centre, to each sketch alike. One or two sketchers have 
blackened the moon (even Miss Stevens was guilty of this 
heresy), whereas one of the most remarkable things in a solar 
eclipse is that the moon does not seem dark : there is, as it 
were, a hole in the corona, and the sky as seen through that 

* By H. KEATLEY MOORE. 



94 THE TOTAL SOLAH ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

hole is precisely of the colour of the rest of the sky.* 
Other sketchers have sent in a black pencil outline on white 
paper. To bring these all to the same level as the rest, for 
convenience of comparison, I have had the black moons 
neutralised in the reproductions, and I have lightly pencilled a 
filling-in to the reproductions of black outline sketches. These 
last have then been reversed in photography, black for white, 
so that they now appear as if drawn in chalk on a blackboard, 
the original lines clearly showing on the faint white background 
added by myself. It will be seen that no real alteration of the 
sketches has been made in reproduction, and of course the 
valuable originals are not touched. It seemed better to say 
exactly what has been done ; and it is hoped that the necessity 
of these slight re-arrangements may seem as imperative to 
the readers as it did, after some weeks of experiment, to the 
writer. 

It is evident, from the above, how great an advantage it 
would be if sketchers would agree to use one medium of ex- 
pression and one scale. The plan adopted by that distinguished 
artist, the late N. E. Green, a former president of the Asso- 
ciation, seems the best, and at the risk of wearisome repetition 
it may here be restated. Take purplish-blue paper, not too 
dark, and draw on it with white chalk ; the chalk should be 
pointed at one end, and broadly flattened at the other, so that 
lines of varying force and thickness, and surfaces of even tint 
may easily be given ; and by thus drawing in white upon blue, 
nearly in the natural colours of the object, the awkward and 
very dangerous translation of white upon blue into black upon 
white, as in a pencil drawing, is avoided a great advantage. 
A half-crown supplies a disc of very convenient size, and is 
always available, at all events at this period, only halfway 
through the journey. The position of a planet (as Venus in 
1898, or Mercury in 1900) should be marked beforehand; and 
sketchers should have previously practised as often as possible, 
always working strictly to time, and from a distant drawing, 
comparing their sketches afterwards with the original in terms 
of the moon's radius, and not using the same original twice in 
succession. It is highly desirable not to attempt more than one 
quadrant in actual eclipse-sketching, and when there are at least 
five in a party, the leader of the party (or the most rapid 
sketcher) should make a rough outline of the whole corona to 
guide him in making the composite sketch. Mr. Krauss Nield 
has sent in his own rough outline, which is very clever and 
valuable, and was done during totality; and this must have 
been of great help in producing the combined drawing of his 
party from their partial sketches. Some parties who did not 
make their own combined drawing have given a little needless 

* The Editor must confess himself as to some extent an heretic on this point. 
To his eyes and to those of not a few other observers the moon, though far 
from being black, is distinctly darker than the surrounding sky; and most 
certainly this conclusion is supported by not a few of the photographs. 



THE CORONA. 95 

trouble by not marking their partial sketches clearly. " Top 
left, top right, bottom left, bottom right," might be suggested 
as a set of names for quadrants quite free from confusion. 

The first thing that strikes one in critically comparing these 
drawings is the large general resemblance of most of them. It 
must be the case that there is in a large number of people 
accidentally coming together in this way, every possible variety 
of skill, from the quite feeble beginner to the accomplished and 
rapid sketcher, and all shades of nervousness, from the highly- 
strung youth whose awe-struck emotion prevents his rightly 
estimating angles and dimensions and such trivialities in the 
presence of the most divinely wonderful thing he ever saw, up 
to the cool old veteran of two or three eclipses who is able to 
keep his nerves well in hand, and attend to his work almost as 
steadily as at one of the usual practices. Consequently it is 
necessary to compare a large number of sketches, paying, of 
course, greater attention to those which are themselves com- 
binations of partial sketches. Every sketcher of any practice 
feels his own work to be the precisely true representation of what 
he saw, and if another sketch differs from his, bv but a hair's 
breadth, so much the worse for the other sketch ! We who sketch 
are so made, that we can no more help feeling the other man 
is all wrong (even if, as an Irishman might say, the other man is 
a lady or a camera) than we can fly. But when an editor 
demands a critical comparison common sense comes into play, 
ancl artistic self-consciousness must bow to the decision of the 
majority. 

The sketches shown are (1) By Miss C. O. Stevens, at Algiers; 
(2) by H. Keatley Moore (combined from sketches of hemi- 
spheres by self and Captain Carpenter), at Manzanares; (3) 
by Colonel Markwick, director of our Variable Star Section (at 
sea, on an Orient liner, which he skilfully assisted the captain 
to place exactly on the line of totality at the critical moment), 
off Ovar ; (4) by C. T. Whitmell (combined from sketches of 
quadrants by his party), at Navalmoral; (5) by T. W. Back- 
house (aided by a field-glass), at Plasencia; (6) by W. F. Stanley, 
at Navalmoral (a wonderful piece of chalk drawing to be pro- 
duced in one minute, but actually untouched) ; (7) by Thomas 
Weir, at Plasencia; (8) by Monsieur Marcel Moye, one of our 
French members, at Elche; (9) by Colonel Burton-Brown (com- 
bined sketch, of importance from the large number of persons 
taking part in it, several of them being competent sketchers, and 
many having practised together on the voyage out), at Algiers 
and vicinity; (10) by Andrew C. D. Crommelin, director of our 
Cometary section, at Algiers (drawn from memory ten minutes 
after totality); and (11) by H. Krauss Nield (com- 
bined sketch, of importance from the number and careful prac- 
tisings of those who sketched quadrants, so that at least two 
excellent drawings of each quadrant were obtained), at Cape 
Matifou, Algiers. In the case of this last sketch (No. 11) the 
combined sketch was drawn in pencil on tracing paper over the 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, TQOO. 

quadrants, and when agreed to as correct was placed, as if it 
were a negative, on a piece of glass and printed out with 
ordinary photographic paper. From the positive thus obtained 
the present reproduction is directly taken. Mr. Krauss Nield's 
party also having been sufficiently blessed with this world's 
goods to muster half-a^crown between them, the result comes to 
hand in a most available form, with a half-crown moon and 
a combined drawing as nearly untouched by the compiler's in- 
dividuality as possible. That is why I have ventured to give the 
details of his ingenious device. 

The drawings not produced here closely resemble one or the 
other of these eleven; and sketchers must not, therefore, feel 
that their labour, so valuable to themselves, has been valueless 
to others. Thus Mr. Howarth's sketch (Navalmoral) may be 
taken as a variant of Mr. W. F. Stanley's (No. 6, Navalmoral), 
but with the S.W. streamer extended to 5 radii. Mr. Nielsen's 
sketch (Ovar), which indicates, by the way, three red promi- 
nences in the middle of the west side of the corona, as visible 
to the naked eye is just Colonel Markwick's (No. 3, at sea off 
Ovar), but with tonuTg|w}icand under boundaries of the west 
side much more m*arly< straights: Mrs. Bevan's combined sketch 
(Algiers), and Mr. TQ/AJ^.^^Ro^Dterts junior's combined sketch 
(Algiers), are bo\h slight vfi^antspf Mr. Krauss Nield's (No. 11, 
Algiers), the main difference being that Mr. Roberts has the 
lower boundary of th^^jtesfosuj^curved almost as much as that 
of Colonel Markwick (NoT 3^an,d so on with others. It is at 
least worthy of remark that in each unpublished case named 
the nearest published sketch is that from the same district. 
Navalmoral resembles Navalmoral ; Ovar, Ovar ; Algiers, Cape 
Matifou, i.e., Algiers. As regards prominences visible to the 
eye it is interesting to note that Colonel Markwick and Mr. 
Backhouse exactly support each other in noting a fine one 
a little below the equator on the western limb. 

There is one feature common to all the sketches, and as this 
is also to be found in Mr. Wesley's most beautiful combined 
drawing (compiled from many photographs by Mr. and Mrs. 
Maunder), it may be taken as proved. I mean the upward lift 
of the western upper boundary of the corona. The " angel's 
wing " outline of this boundary, with a special brightness at the 
crest of the curve, which Mr. Wesley shows, is found very 
markedly in the Manzanares and Ovar sketches. The same 
outline, but without the special brightness, is distinctly though 
less markedly shown in the Cape Matifou sketch, and still less 
markedly in the Plasencia sketch (No. 7). In the Elche sketch 
this boundary finishes early, but if the sketcher had seen it 
further I think it not unlikely that it would have proved to be 
of this type ; both the Navalmoral sketches tend towards it, while 
there is nothing inconsistent with it in some of the Algiers 
sketches (Nos. 9 and 10), which have not this boundary at full 
length. On the other hand, Miss Stevens (Algiers) and Mr. 
Backhouse (Plasencia) are either straight or slightly convex. 



Hj 






**< 

S 





pq 




3. At sea, off Ovar. (By Col. E. E. MARKWICK, E.A., F.R.A.S.) 




4. Xavahnoral. (By CHAS. T. WHITMELL, M.A., F.R.A.S.) 




5. Plaseneia. (By T. W. BACKUOVSE, F.R.A.S.) 




(i. Xavalmonil. (By AV. F. STANLEY, F.R.A.S.) 




7. Plasencia. (By THOMAS AVEiii, F.E.A.S.) 




8. Elclie. (By MARCEL MOVE, LL.D.) 




9. Algiers. (By Col. ALEX. BUKTOX-BKOWX, K.A., F.R.A.S.) 




10. Algiers. (By ANDREW C. D. CROMMELIX, F.R.A.S.) 




11. Cape Matit'ou, Algiers. (By H. KHAVSS ^>"IELU. 




THE CORONA. 109 

The length of this " angel's wing " was fortunately fixed by 
Mercury. At Algiers, Manzanares, Cape Matifou (where Dr. 
Harold Whichello specially observed this point), and Navalmoral, 
the corona was distinctly seen to extend a little beyond and 
above Mercury (7.3 lunar radii from the moon's centre). This 
then is a point abundantly proved by many independent 
sketchers. The fact that others did not see it is probably due 
to less fresh or less skilled eyesight; it is unfortunately only 
too easy to watch a little too often the interesting partial phases 
before totality, or to endeavour to catch Baily's beads, etc., with 
the inevitable result of cutting thousands upon thousands of 
miles off the extent of the corona. And this I say daringly, for 
the wrath of many indignant sketchers awaits me ; but it is 
disastrously true, like many other unpleasant things in this 
world, that you cannot eat your cake and have it. At any rate 
this one result is ample justification for refusing ever to depend 
solely upon the camera to the neglect of the older, simpler, and 
rougher method of hand and eye. Here at least we sketchers 
have scored a point. 

The lower western boundary is also shown by Mr. Wesley to 
be curved, and with him (following his originals, the Maunder 
photographs) it is cut off by one of those deeply interesting 
black lines we think so much and know so very little about. 
Manzanares, Ovar, and Elche, and perhaps one of the Algiers 
(No. 10) tend to corroborate this dark line in the definite way 
the western lower boundary runs right up to the moon's limb. 
In all other cases it melts into the inner corona vaguely. The 
curved outline is a little over estimated perhaps in Ovar, and a 
little under estimated in Navalmoral (No. 4); very well shown 
in two of the Algiers (Nos. 9 and 10) and in Elche, though in 
this last (the whole division being far too narrow) it unfortu- 
nately runs up almost to form a point with the upper boundary. 

Still using Mr. Wesley's remarkably beautiful transcription 
of the photographs as our standard of comparison, we observe 
that the general features of the great western division of the 
corona comprise a very decided northern ray, broad at the base 
and tapering gradually to a point; a less decided southern ray, 
broader at the base and tapering much more gradually (alto- 
gether blunter in shape than the former), and between these a 
beautiful brush-work with two or perhaps three rays or groups 
of rays extending beyond it, but the whole of much less extension 
than the great north and south rays on this side, say roughly 
of half their length. The outline on the extreme west (if we 
may use an absurdly harshly-defined term, where the actual 
appearance was that of an exquisite imperceptible melting away) 
is hollow; so that with the definite north and south boundaries 
the whole figure of the western division has a rough similarity 
(parvis componere magna) with a herring's tail. This last feature 
is common to all the eleven sketches except No. 10. No. 3 is 
not very definite, but does not wholly disagree. I hold that 
No. 7, who has failed to see more than the roots of the great 



110 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

streamers, yet quite agrees so far as he goes; and No. 8 clearly 
means the middle to be less extensive than the boundaries. The 
herring's tail feature may therefore be regarded as fixed. 
Then as to the great upper ray all but No. 10 clearly have 
it, some to the full extent visible to the naked eye, others to a 
less extent; No. 9 omits the tapering effect, Nos. 3 and 8 
exaggerate it, because of the narrowness of their base. But the 
consensus is so marked as abundantly to prove it. Next as to 
the great lower ray; three of these sketches make it shorter than 
the upper ray, namely, Nos. 1, 5, and 6. But Nos. 2, 3, and 4 
make it longer, and Nos. 8 and 9 at least equal, or even slightly 
longer. Judging from the slowness of its tapering in Mr. 
Wesley's drawing, and remembering that it grew much more 
rapidly faint as it proceeded than did its more striking " angel's 
wing " brother, I am inclined to think it was longer, and that 
Manzanares and Navalmoral (No. 4) are justified. On the other- 
hand, this lower ray is clearly more definite throughout its 
length than Manzanares makes it, a feature whieh only No. 10 
omits. 

The middle portion of this western division, with its fine brush- 
work, and emphasised rays, shows clearly in No. 1, is too vague 
and probably a little over extended in No. 2 (or not sufficiently 
softened off, we may say), and is one of the best drawn parts in 
Plasencia (No. 7). It is abundantly shown by every one. 

The parts around the north and south poles of the sun have 
with Mr. Wesley much less importance. The South Polar fine 
faint rays (including the dark ray) radiate fairly well from the 
sun's centre, but the rays at the North Pole spring from a 
radiant point near the limb, and extend less than those at the 
South Pole. 

The sketches are still in agreement with this. The South 
Polar rays are shown as longer in nearly all the sketches, and 
where there is a difference in power are also fainter than those 
at the North Pole. The excentric effect of the northern rays 
is indicated in Nos. 3, 5, 7, and 11; but only slightly, as the 
sketchers were intent upon the more striking equatorial regions. 

Finally, passing to the Eastern division of the corona we find 
in Mr. Wesley's drawing a fine streamer with a base extending 
from below the equator nearly to the pole, and visible, tapering 
steadily, and towards a point a little above the sun's equator, to 
a length nearly equal to either of the western streamers. Above 
this is a short roughly parallel ray, about a third of the length 
of its companion, radiating from the elevated radiant point 
affected by the other North Polar rays, and its root balancing 
the root of the " angel's wing." Below "the great eastern streamer 
are three others, all rapidly decreasing in brilliancy as they 
advance, and all shorter than the great streamer; the lowest 
of these, with its great markedly curved root, balancing very 
closely the " dark ray " which bounds the lower western ray. 
As these three lower Eastern features are not very different 
in length from the rays of the South Polar region, a roughly 



THE CORONA. Ill 

circular margin, parallel with the moon's limb, is felt in the 
photographs, ranging from the greater lower Western ray to the 
great Eastern ray. 

These Eastern features are not so well produced by many of 
the sketchers. It is of course known to every one who handles 
a pencil that it is more difficult to draw to the left of a line 
than to the right, simply because we use the right hand, and 
the natural play of the hand is towards the right, as indeed the 
direction of our writing admirably evidences. Therefore a priori 
I should expect left-hand features occasionally to be stinted by 
unwary sketchers, and in marshalling my forces should put most 
of my best troops on that dangerous side. Nevertheless Nos. 2, 
4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, show as great or nearly as great an extension 
on the east as on the west, and while No. 3 falls a little short 
No. 10 even extends further. No. 6 touches the edge of his 
paper, and leaves it a little uncertain how much further he 
meant to go. Only No. 1 has an Eastern side very greatly 
subordinate to the Western, and as this sketcher was working 
alone there are many practical reasons to account for this short- 
coming. I regard it as proved that the great Eastern ray was 
nearly as long as the great Western rays. 

Both the great Eastern ray and the smaller (excentric) ray 
are admirably shown in Mr. Backhouse's drawing, Plasencia 
No. 5; nothing could be better in general effect, and we only 
want it a little extended. Very good also is No. 9 on this point, 
but the magnificent base has not been sufficiently well felt. Mr. 
Krauss Nield is also, as usual, successful; his great ray only 
wants to be redrawn parallel to its present position but a little 
higher up the paper, it is very good in direction and general 
effect; and this would also bring the smaller ray, clearly 
indicated, nearer to the pole, as it should be. No. 7 has also 
got his great Eastern ray pointing below instead of above the 
equator. Every one has felt the tapering effect of this ray, 
Manzanares less than most. Its form, extent, and general 
position are abundantly proved. 

Then as to the rest of the Eastern division, Nos. 1, 5, 7, 10, 11 
show two of the three smaller streamers 1 below the great one, 
and Nos. 2, 3, 6 generalise. Nos. 4 and 9 only show one of the 
streamers, so that it becomes over prominent by isolation. No. 8 
alone shows none. The balance of both upper and lower main 
curving boundaries of Eastern and Western divisions is exag- 
gerated in No. 8, but the very exaggeration shows how promi- 
nent was the effect to that sketcher. No. 7 is the only one to 
feel nothing of this balance; for in No. 11, though not well 
apparent as it stands, the correction suggested in the last paia- 
graph would bring it out quite clearly ; but many do not realise 
the bounding curves so well as they have done on the Western 
side, no doubt led by the straight boundaries of the main 
feature, the great Eastern ray. Looking at both upper and 
lower boundaries of Nos. 6 and 9, I observe the same effect 
indicated which has been overdone in No. 8, and this point also 



112 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 

seems to be proved. In general, the sketching seems to me rather 
poorer, and less accordant on the Eastern side than on the 
Western. 

Looking at the corona as a whole the tilt upwards to the 
right and downwards to the left is excellently marked through- 
out. But I feel convinced that Nos. 4, 5, and 6 are right in 
the upward axis of their great Eastern ray, so that if the whole 
corona is turned so as to stand upon the " fish-tail " as a base, 
this great ray will trend to the right hand (as Mr. Wesley says 
it should do), and not, as in Nos. 1 and 2 and several others, 
rather to the left. And the last observation that I shall make 
is that except Manzanares (which I do not for a moment say is 
correct in result, though I commend the attempt) no one tried 
to mark definitely the limits of the " blaze " of the inner corona. 
Mr. Stanley (No. 6) told me that to save time he stuck a white 
ring on to his dark paper, as is apparent if the original is 
examined, and most of the others have treated the inner corona 
as a tolerably regular circular blaze. Colonel Burton-Brown 
(No. 9) is successful in getting the general effect of this feature, 
but I saw a much more irregular and more definite outline than 
he gives. And though I frankly admit that, the Manzanares 
outer edge (of the inner corona) is too hard, yet there is a very 
great difference between inner and outer, and Nos. 2, 6, 8, and 9 
have rightly emphasised this. There is of course a danger in 
looking too much at the inner corona (and I think No. 7 is a 
proof of it) as it is so dazzlingly bright that it tends to look 
bigger than it really is, and to blind the eye for the far fainter 
long extensions of the outer corona. My own plan is to take it 
last, on this account. 

Perhaps it comes from my reproducing the poetical name of 
" angel's wing," given to the great N.W. streamer by a gifted 
friend, that I yield to a suggestion in high quarters, and like a 
fool " rush in where angels fear to tread." At all events it 
has been thought desirable to embody in an imaginary sketch 
(No. 12) all the points which I consider to have been proved 
in the foregoing article. As this sketch will differ from every 
one of the actual sketches my fate will lie between Actseon and 
Marsyas, unless my indignant colleagues pause to remember that 
while it differs it also agrees (in some points) with every one. 
Speaking as a sketcher myself, and shaking off the critic, I am 
quite sure that No. 12 is extremely wrong in every point where 
it deviates from No. 2. I cannot therefore grumble if, changing 
the latter number, my brother sketchers echo this sentiment. 

But, to end seriously, I really think that every one who 
carefully and without prejudice examines this group of 
sketches, the production of only about a minute's work, and 
therefore necessarily containing many errors, will be surprised to 
find the large number of points in which a majority is found to 
agree, and will come to the conclusion that sketching still 
remains an indispensable and very valuable means of recording 
an eclipse. At the same time we must endeavour to get more 



THE CORONA. 



113 



practice before another eclipse, as it is clear that, in the immortal 
words of Goldsmith's cognoscento (" Vicar of Wakefield "), " the 
picture might have been better if the painter had taken more 
pains." 

H. KEATLEY MOORE. 



The following diagram will enable the position of the sun's 
axis and equator to be recognised on the drawings. Mercury, 
shown on each of the sketches, was situated at the time of 
mid-totality for the centre of Spain, at position angle 271 
from the N. point of the disc, reading in the direction N.E.S.W., 
and at a distance from the sun's centre of 2 2' or^ 7.3 lunar 
radii. 



VERTEX 




DIAGRAM OF THE SUNS DISC MAY 36, 1900 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE CORONA AS SEEN IN THE TELESCOPE. 

ONE department of observation, to which attention was given in 
this eclipse, was the detailed examination of the inner corona by 
the aid of telescopes of considerable power. Chief amongst these 
observers who undertook this department was Mr. W. H. WESLEY, 
who was sent out to Algiers by the Council of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, in order that science might have the benefit 
of his artistic skill, and absolutely unique acquaintance with 
coronal structure as shown on photographs, directed to the study 
of the corona itself, as seen in a fine refractor. In Mr. Wesley's 
own words, given in " Comptes Rendus," 1900, July 23, and 
translated in " The Observatory," of 1900, September, " As I had 
had occasion to study minutely the form and structure of corona as 
photographed during eclipses since 1870, it seemed desirable to 
compare the aspect of the corona as photographed and as observed 
visually. There was a probability that the eye would see details 
not shown in the photographs. My attention had been recently 
directed to the point in a letter from Prof. Langley on the eclipse 
of 1878. In his 'Report to the Superintendent of the United 
States Naval Observatory,' he says : 

'Xow \vliat I saw in this brief view was a surprisingly definite filamentary 
structure somewhat coarser and decidedly more sharply defined than I have 
ever seen filaments in the photosphere, not disposed radially or oily so in 
the rudest sense, sharpest and much the brightest close to the disc, fading 
rapidly away into invisibility at a distance of five minutes of arc or more 
(possibly in some cases of ten) Interesting as may be the photo- 
graphs of the interior structure of the corona which have been recently 
obtained, this structure has not been completely studied, even on the best 
photographs I have seen ; the means at our disposal, at present, perhaps do 
not permit us to do it. T hope that at the next eclipse this interior structure 
will be a subject of special study on the part of every party possessing the 
necessary photographic outfit, and I submit that wherever possible 
telescopic study should be made.' 

In photographs taken near the maximum of sun-spots (notably on 
the photographs of 1871 and 1893), I have found a great amount 
of complicated detail in the lower regions of the corona. The 
photographs taken near the period of minimum sun-spots in 
general show little detail." 

Since the eclipse of 1900 took place at a time when the sun was 
least spotted and the event showed the corona to be markedly of 
the minimum type it seemed a peculiarly fitting occasion on which 



THE CORONA AS SEEN IN THE TELESCOPE. 115 

to put to the test the alleged superiority of the eye over the camera 
for detail in the iuner portions of the corona. Mr. Wesley was, 
moreover, especially favoured in his telescope, as M. Trepied, 
Director of the Algiers Observatory, placed at his disposal 
the powerful equatorial coude probably the most powerful 
instrument as yet employed visually on the solar corona. 
The following is Mr. Wesley's own description of the visual 
structure of the corona: "At the instant of disappearance I 
commenced observing, and perceived at the first glance a corona of 
symmetrical shape, with broad, well marked polar rifts, extend- 
ing a considerable distance to the N. and to the S. These rifts 




Miss L. MARTIX-LEAKE, HOTEL BK LA REGEXCE, ALGIERS. 



were filled with delicate rays, which I could follow to the edge of 
the disc. They were straight and in a direction nearly radial in the 
central portion of the rifts ; then towards the extremities of the 
rifts they diverged more and more from the straight form and from 
the radial direction. They recalled in a striking manner the rays 
seen in many former eclipses, particularly that of 1889. The 
equatorial regions were, in general, of a uniform density all along 
the limb, and here I could not certainly find any trace of rifts 
reaching right up to the lunar disc. I looked especially for traces 
of arched or interlaced forms near the limb, but I could see none ; 
I could only suspect some arched rays around the large prominence 
in the S.E. The details seen in the lower equatorial regions 

i 2 



116 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

consisted entirely of ill-defined masses, not more than one-fourth 
the lunar diameter in altitude. These masses faded off in a manner 
nearly imperceptible, and presented no definite contour .... I 
cannot believe that the non-appearance of arched or interlaced 
structure to which I principally directed my attention was due to 
bad definition, since the polar rays were defined with extreme 
clearness." 

Mr. Wesley's observation emphasises two points: (1) The 
solar corona varies in complexity throughout the progress of the 
sun-spot cycle, being richest in detail when spots are most 
abundant ; and (2) As much detail can be seen in a photograph 
sufficiently exposed and developed, or rather in a series of 
photographs obtained with different exposures and suitable 
developments, as with the eye. On this point Mr. Wesley 
says: "I do not believe I saw more details than are shown 
in the photographs, and now feel convinced that good photographs, 
taken on a sufficiently large scale, are capable of showing all the 
details which can be distinguished by the eye at the telescope. I 
make this statement with the more confidence since it disagrees with 
my preconceived ideas. I had expected to see detail of a more or less 
complex nature, and my attention was especially directed to this 
point. At the same time, the sky was absolutely transparent, 
and the instrument which 1 used was, without doubt, better than 
any hitherto employed for visual observation of an eclipse." 

Five members of the party stationed on the roof of the Hotel 
de la Ecgence, Algiers, took up this question of the detailed exami- 
nation of the structure of the corona, in the telescope. Of these, 
Miss LILIAN MARTIN-LEAKE, observing with a 8-inch refractor, 
and a power of about 50, made an exceedingly careful drawing of the 
corona in the S.W. quadrant, paying especial attention to the region 
surrounding the prominence, situated about position angle 236. 
Miss Leake has given her observations in the form of a key-sketch 
to her drawing with notes upon the several structures shown, thus 
enabling the reader to reproduce and follow the details which she 
saw in the field of her telescope with great exactness. 

Mr. CKOMMELIN, who was armed with a refractor of 3 inches 
aperture, selected the same general region as Miss Leake, and paid 
special attention to the neighbourhood of the prominence at 236, 
that is to say, the large double one shown in Miss Leake's 
picture. Besides his drawing, Mr. Crommelin supplies the follow- 
ing notes : 

" As soon as the 'Ten Seconds' ' signal was given I removed the 
cardboard screen, placed myself at the eyepiece of the telescope, and 
slightly changed the focus, so that I was ready to commence observing 
when Mr. Maunder gave the signal ' Go.' I directed my attention to 
the largest prominence (position angle about 236) which was seen 
at once to be a magnificent double one, the left hand member being 
straight, while the right hand one was bent sharply to the left. 
The coronal light was of course pretty bright near the moon's limb, 
and for some seconds I could not make out any detailed structure 
in the restricted region I was examining, but presently I made out 



THE CORONA AS SEEN IN THE TELESCOPE. 117 

three bright projections one rising pretty symmetrically between 
the two large prominences another on the right side of the bent 
prominence, and the third to the left of these. I feel pretty 
confident of the existence of these brighter regions, but they were 




COHOXAL DETAIL ROUND LARGEST PROMINENCE. 
(Position Anglo about 236.) 

Sketch made at Algiers with 3 in. Telescope during totality, by A. C. 
1). Cromnielin. 



so difficult to see that their positions in the drawing may be some- 
what in error. An outline sketch was made during totality, and a 
more finished drawing immediately after, while the appearance was 
still fresh in the memory. These have since remained unaltered, 
and the accompanying drawing is made from them." 



118 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

The Rev. C. D. P. PAVIES employed a refractor of 2 inches 
aperture and 30 inches focal length, the micrometer No. 2 
(Sheepshanks 3) in No. 29 of the R.A.S. collection of instru- 
ments lent by that Society, forming the eye-piece. This gave a 
power of about 60, and was used in conjunction with an un- 
silvered diagonal. Mr. Davies describes the polar aigrettes as 
follows : 

" My photographic programme would not permit of my 
lingering more than about a second and a half to gaze on the 
vision, but the impression produced in that all too short moment 
is one that I can never lose. The picture before me in intricacy, 
wealth of detail, and pure beauty utterly transcended any de- 
scription that I had ever met with either in drawing, photo- 
graphy, or language. It was a most glorious sight. That which 
first of all arrested attention, and in fact quite startled me, was 
the evident perspective in which the streamers were viewed. 
No photograph or drawing of a celestial object that I have ever 
seen looks otherwise than as a representation of a plane 
superficies, unless it be that of a partial phase of the moon. 
Certainly all pictures of a total eclipse have to me looked 
perfectly flat. But here were the streamers manifestly viewed 
as rank behind rank, like stems of trees in a dense orchard, or, 
better still ; at least as illustrating their form more nearly, like 
blades of yucca planted singly but thickly on a lawn. Their 
colour seemed steely blue or possibly a trifle paler, not altogether 
unlike that of the nib end of a quill pen, as it gleams with 
reflected sunlight. Besides the perspective appearance of the 
streamers bending one behind another as in a forest, there 
were at least two other ways in which the visual appearance 
put photographs out of court. First as regards colour : This is only 
to be expected, and is a mere matter of course. In the second par- 
ticular one might a priori have expected otherwise. In all photo- 
graphs of total eclipses that I have seen the streamers, however 
rectilinear may be the general direction of them in part or even 
in the whole of their length, their edges are always more or less 
ill-defined, giving one the impression of their being a tongue of 
mist; whereas when I saw them they looked more like our old 
friend, " a yard of pump-water." As regards at least the inner 
portion of the corona, I imagine that there can be little doubt 
that the appearance of haze in the photograph is produced by 
the superposition on one another of the bases of innumerable 
and separate streamers, and is a frantic attempt on the part of 
the negative to supply that very appearance of perspective in 
which it so sadly fails. The mention of the pump-water above 
suggests just one more illustration of the appearance of the 
scene. It was as if one were looking along the surface of a 
sheet of water from which numberless jets were spurting up. 
many of them gracefully bending over at the top, but cut off 
before coming down again, some longer, some shorter, some 
thicker, some more slender, and the whole glistening in sunlight." 
Mr. EDMONDS, using like Miss Leake a 3-inch telescope with a 



THE COROXA AS SEEN IN THE TELESCOPE. 119 

power of 60, made no drawing, but examining the same region as 
that chosen by Miss L. Leake, selected the neighbourhood of 
the straight prominence for special study. Mr. Edmonds had set 
himself to answer the three following questions: (I) Whether 
the corona consisted of broad diffused masses of light, or of 
filaments ? (2) If filamentous in character, whether such filaments 
were radial, tangential to the limb, or inclined at an angle to the 
radius ? (3) Whether or no the corona seemed to avoid the neigh- 
bourhood of prominences, as if repelled by them ? Mr. Edmonds' 
replies to the questions were : (1) The corona seemed to me to 
consist of filaments. (2) These filaments were radial. (3) They 
did not appear to avoid the edge of the prominence. 

Mr. W. ANDREWS observed with a much smaller aperture and 
larger field, and his results are comparable with those which would 
be given by a view in a opera-glass. It will be noted that he gave 
his attention chiefly to the outer streamers, that is to say, to 
a region outside that which was studied by Mr. Wesley and the 
three foregoing observers. " I had long wished to witness a total 
eclipse of the sun, and with that intention accompanied the 
expedition to Vadso in 1896. This year I went to Algiers. I 
used a small telescope, of 1-inch aperture, on a stand, and an 
inverting eye-piece giving a magnifying power of 7 diameters only, 
but with a field of view of 4 degrees = 8 diameters of the sun. 
Also a small camera to expose one plate only. Avoiding looking 
at the sun I centred it in the field of view by projecting the image 
on my sketch paper, and the moment totality commenced looked 
through the telescope. The eclipse was in the middle of the field. 
Neglecting any prominences my attention was directed solely to the 
corona, and I was at first struck with what seemed to be the 
extraordinary complication of it. The field was covered with 
streamers, the longest of which reached to the boundary, or in 
other words they were 3 diameters of the sun in length. After 
a few seconds, however, I judged that the phenomena could be 
divided into two quite distinct portions, namely : 

1. The inner corona. 

2. The streamers. 

The inner corona seemed to go all round the sun, and its depth 
seemed to be equal to about one-fourth of the sun's diameter. It 
appeared to be unequal or irregular in density or texture, and was 
very bright in places, and looked as though it were in a state of 
disturbance. Neglecting now the inner corona I turned my atten- 
tion only to the streamers, and commenced to sketch their main 
outlines. In the middle of the totality 1 removed the cap from 
the camera lens, replacing it after three seconds, and continued the 
sketch, but the totality only lasted one minute and the time was 
all too short. From pictures of previous eclipses I had expected 
to see the streamers in long curved rays, but rather to my surprise 
the rays were absolutely straight. The streamers were composed 
of bundles of bright fine rays, hundreds in number, and very 
strongly resembled beams of sunlight traversing our lower atrnp- 



120 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

sphere through openings in the clouds above. I came to the con- 
clusion that no sketching could possibly do justice to the details of 
the streamers, and that photography must be relied upon. On 
the small negative which I obtained I can trace the streamers to a 
length of about 2 diameters only from the sun on the upper or 
eastern side, and 1| diameters on the lower or western side. 
This indicates that the light from the extremities of the streamers 
must be very feeble." 

The general appearance of the corona as Mr. Andrews saw it, 
was such as in his opinion, might be presented if the inner 
corona, whatever its nature, was a structure not thoroughly 
transparent which covered the sun all over to a depth of about 
half a solar radius. Then, if we imagine the corona to be 
irregular in texture and density, and to contain gaps and rifts, 
the sunlight streaming through its weak places, would light up 
the cosmical dust, which we may imagine surrounds the sun in 
all directions. In other words, the streamers resembled in Mr. 
Andrews' view, those bright rays, seen when the sun is shining 
from behind a cloud on a moisture-laden atmosphere; or when 
the sunlight, streaming in through a narrow aperture into a 
partially darkened room, reveals to us the " motes in a sunbeam." 

Mr. Andrews encloses a sketch of the corona, composed en- 
tirely of rectilinear lines. It reproduces very fairly well the 
general effect of the corona as presented by the consensus of 
photographs and drawings. But it fails in one^ important 
particular; the characteristic double curvature of the roots of 
the great western extension " the angel's wing " of Col. 
Mark wick was quite missed by Mr. Andrews. That it was 
easy to miss, where attention had not been specially directed 
to it, several of the naked-eye drawings abundantly show, but 
of the actuality of this curvature, one of the most characteristic 
of coronal forms^ there can be no doubt whatsoever. This 
" hyacinth bulb " or " Florence flask," or ' leaf-shaped " outline 
is always seen in the prominent lines of the corona, and it is 
most important as showing to us that we are not dealing with 
matters distributed, like meteors in a,n orbit. Such an orbit 
must necessarily be one of the conic sections, and a conic section 
however presented is always a conic section. The graceful 
double curves of the synclinal rays cannot therefore be explained 
in this way, any more than, they can be explained by Mr. 
Andrews' simile of dust illuminated by sunbeams. Further, 
though many of Mr. Andrews' rays are like those in the region 
studied by Mr. Edmonds, radial in direction, many again are 
as evidently tangential. Now whilst a ray which appears to be 
radial may in reality be tangential, the reverse cannot possibly 
happen; whilst lines of illumination, streaming out through 
gaps in a partially opaque screen, would necessarily be nearly 
radial in direction. 

Rev. AUGUSTIN MORFORD (Hotel Paina, Ovar) " was furnished 
with a refractor of 109-mm., by Secretan, Paris, ocular wide 
angle, power 70. The instant after the light of the photosphere 



THE CORONA AS SEEN IN THE TELESCOPE, 121 

had disappeared, the arc of the chromosphere shone out with a 
bright glow, orange-red rather than rose-coloured. It was a 
thin layer, unequal, almost serrated. In an instant it was 
covered and the corona shone out in all its magnificence. At 
this moment I took two photographs returning to the telescope 
afterwards. The field of the ocular measuring 52 minutes, was 
filled with the inner corona. Bright, narrow silver rays as far 
as I could see evenly distributed like the spokes of a wheel; 
the interspaces filled with a soft radiance, silvery with a tint 
of violet; blended but not mixed with a pale-green like sea- 
water. I feel I am trying to describe the indescribable. The 
colours were not of earth, and nothing I ever saw resembled 
them. But immediately after totality, trying to put my vivid 
impressions into words, this was the closest description I could 
find. Close to, if not upon, the eastern end of the sun's equator 
were two prominence-like forms I judge 1J to 2^ minutes in 
length of an extraordinary brilliant white. They were slightly 
curved towards each other, and stood out from the background 
of the corona as if they belonged to the moon's disc instead of 
the sun's. I cannot say if they were visible before I left the 
telescope to photograph, but they caught my eye the instant that 
I returned to it. They were the brightest and most striking 
object of the whole phenomenon. Before I thought it possible 
the second side began to brighten, the limb seemed rapidly to 
turn orange ; the chromosphere seemed to glow like tire for a 
second or two ; a drop of light burst forth and scattered into 
Baily's Beads, and totality was at an end. It had lasted 88.4 
seconds by my chronograph watch instead of 93.1." 

This telescopic study of the corona was practically a new 
feature in eclipse observation, and the amount of success secured 
under all the drawoacks of the late eclipse, is a matter for the 
greatest congratulation. One poor minute, and indeed in Mr. 
Crommelin's case, it was not so much, is terribly short for the 
study of such an object as the corona. Yet one result of 
very great interest, though it may seem rather negative than 
positive, has been put on record. No man whatsoever has so 
full a knowledge of the corona from photographs as Mr. Wesley ; 
and, as he himself said 3 never before had mortal ma.n such a 
superb view of the corona itself as was aiforded to him in the 
equatorial coude of the Algiers Observatory. And his verdict 
was, that the corona he there saw, was a familiar object; he 
saw no structure nor detail which had not been made known to 
him by some one of the many photographs, which in the course of 
years have passed under his scrutiny. 

But the corollary to this result is not that such telescopic 
examination was either useless this time, or will be useless here- 
after. In spite of the diffusion of photography, it may well be 
that in the future from time to time an observer may find him- 
self at a total eclipse with a telescope but without photographic 
appliances. There will be still work for him to do in such a 



122 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

case; and in any case we cannot assume until we have both 
telescopic scrutiny and photographic records throughout all the 
varying phases of a complete solar cycle, that the more complex 
and elaborate structure of the corona at the sunspot maximum 
may not give to telescopic examination greater minuteness of 
detail than any but the most exceptional photographs can supply. 
In spite of the increasing importance of photographs of Jupiter 
direct observation holds its own in the delineation of planetary 
detail, and is far from having been completely driven out of 
the field in the examination of the surfaces of the sun and moon. 
So, though the extreme brevity of eclipses gives photography an 
especial advantage over eye work, it is to be hoped that the ex- 
periment made this year will be followed on future occasions to 
the fullest possible extent, and that great use will be made of 
expert and artistic ability in the examination of coronal detail 
with considerable telescopic power. 




S.W. Quadrant of the Corona. (By Mis;* LILIA.N MAKTIX-LKAKE.) 




CORONA. Streamers 7 in number noticed. 

1. Outline, very sharply defined, of whole coronal mass of light seen in 
telescope. Probably southern edge of equatorial extension at root? I did not 
notice any coronal light to left of (1), it must have been very faint relative to 
light of (1), if present. 

2. Outline springs from close to base of prominence C (equatorial side) and 
makes a sweeping curve away from C toward equator. Xot nearly as sharply 
defined as (1). 

3. Outline about as sharply defined as (2), seems to spring from between 
prominences A and B close to B and curving from behind B (apparently) 
towards (2). 

4. Outline nearly as sharply defined as (1), more so than (2), and 3 originates 
between prominences A and B very close to A, and curves beyond tip of A in 
direction roughly parallel to (2) ; further defined in length than 3. 

5. Outline fainter and shorter than any of others; curves towards (4). 

6. Outline only roughly noticed ; more sharply defined and longer than (3) ; 
roughly parallel to (3) ; originates close to Equator. 

7. Outline about as sharply defined as (4) ; last streamer to right noticed, but 
coronal light quite bright beyond it. 

REGIOX OF COROXA between and on either side of prominences A and B 
shows much disturbance. There are short faint streaks to left of B curving 
towards it from moon's limb, and space between A and streamer 5 is streaked. 
Space between A and B seemed to contain no chromosphere flames, and to be 
quivering with light, yellow and white rather than red, and to be marked with 
dark streaks impossible to see definitely in the very short time. The bases of 
streamers (3) and (4) could be traced right up to moon's limb. 

PROMIXKXCKS. Position angles, A 236 ; C 216 (?) 

A and B close together. A seemed almost at Vertex Line. 

A. Longest of all; conical, tapering to a fine point; strongly defined spiral 
markiiigs all up it. Bed in colour. Radial. 

B. Thick radial stem, with strongly defined spiral markings; bends towards 
A sharply .almost at right angles about f length of A up ; the tip is blunt with 
curved outlines and markings like wreaths of smoke, hazy at edges. Colour : 
stem red like A, tip orange to bright yellow. 

C. Scarcely length of A; conical, tapering to fine point; spirallv marked. 
Radial. 



]). A very small one; conical. 



125 



CHAPTER XII. 

PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CORONA. 

FOUR different subjects arising out of the photographs of the 
corona, secured in the recent eclipse, present themselves for 
consideration. I. The structure and form of the corona. 
II. An unexpected feature which certain of the photographs 
have brought into evidence, namely, the existence of dark 
markings. Mr. W. H. Wesley has very carefully studied the 
photographs with respect to these two subjects, and contributes 
a note on each of them. He has also prepared two composite 
drawings, the one from a study of all the negatives sent in, 
the other chiefly from negatives supplied from Mr. and Mrs. 
Walter Maomder. III. The coronal extensions as seen on 
the photographs ; and IV. Photographs of the corona during 
the Partial Phase. Mr. and Mrs. Walter Maunder report on 
the last two enquiries. 



THE CORONA OF 1900 FROM THE PHOTOGRAPHS.* 

A LARGE number of photographs were taken during this eclipse, 
by members of the Association, who have kindly placed the 
original negatives in my hand for examination and comparison. 
A detailed list of the negatives examined is given at the end of 
this report, and from these photographs a combined drawing has 
been prepared, which forms the frontispiece of the present 
volume. 

The general aspect of the corona, as shown on the photographs 
is that of a. wind-vane, being somewhat broad and spreading 
on the west side, and pointed on the east. On the west side it 
has the least extension in the equatorial region, while on the east 
the greatest extension is only a little north of the equator. The 
corona has thus a fish-tail form on the west, remarkably like its 
eastern side during the eclipse of 1898. 

The four groups of so-called " synclinal " structure which were 
very distinct in 1898 are by no means so clear in 1900. One of 
these groups can be seen to the north-west, much inclined from 
the radial in an equatorial direction, with a well marked curve 

* By W. II. WESLEY. 
126 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CORONA. 127 

of double curvature on its northern edge, where it is sharply 
bounded by a remarkable dark streak. The ray terminates about 
two diameters from the limb, in a point somewhat in the direction 
of the planet Mercury. The southern edge of the western half 
of the corona is, like the northern, bounded by a dark streak. 
There is here no double curvature, and the extension is somewhat 
less than in the north-west. The western equatorial region is 
filled with more or less parallel rays running approximately in a 
westerly direction, giving to this part of the corona a " combed 
out " appearance. 

As is so frequently the case the corona on the east side is 
strikingly different in character from its western aspect. On 
the east the only mass that seems synclinal in character is a 
great conical group of rays, the northern edge of which is nearly 
tangential to the limb. The base of the cone extends for 70 
or 80 along the limb, and it runs out to more than a diameter 
and a half, with an approach to double curvature on each of its 
sides, forming the point of the " wind vane." To the north of 
this cone, and between it and the north polar rift, is a tuft of 
rays curving somewhat towards the cone, and to the south, adjoin- 
ing the south polar rift, are two similar tufts of rays, curving 
decidedly northward towards the cone. None of these rays have 
nearly so great an extension as the cone itself. 

The north and south polar rifts are wide, extending along the 
limb 40 and 50 respectively ; they are very symmetrically 
placed with regard to the sun's axis, and much alike each other 
in character. Each of the rifts is filled very evenly with rays of 
the usual polar type straight and radial in the centre, and more 
curved and inclined from the axis as they approach the extremi- 
ties of the rift. Between some of the south polar rays are singular 
dark streaks, similar to those which bound the north and south 
edges of the western equatorial extension. 

The corona of 1900 shows a much nearer approach to the tvpe 
which has been usually associated with a minimum period of 
sunspots than that of 1898. In its most general form it most 
nearly resembles that of 1889, Jan. 1, but the eastern and western 
coronal rays are not so much depressed towards the equator as 
was the case during that eclipse ; still less does it resemble in 
this respect the extreme type shown in 1878. It accords, how- 
ever, with other coronas at times of sunspot minimum in its 
generally simple and apparently quiescent character. There are 
no rays which curl over or branch, and none of the indications 
of perturbation which were so marked in 1896. The main rays 
in 1900 run out east and west, generally tending towards parallel- 
ism with the solar equator, and there seems comparatively little 
detail in the lower parts of the corona. Its most interesting 
feature appears to be the occurrence of the dark rays or streaks, 
to which attention is more fully called in another place in this 
volume. 

Among the photographs submitted to me for examination were 
negatives taken at such distant stations as North Carol inai and 



128 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 





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THE COKONA, 1900, May 28th. 

(Photographed at Algiers, by Mr. Walter Maunder ami party. Exposure 

k second, taken 5 seconds after mid-totality on Imperial " Fine grain Ordinary " 

plate. Aperture 4 inches. Focal length 3-i inches.) 




SECOND CONTACT, 1900, May 28th. 

(Photographed at Wadesborough, U.S.A., by Mr. J. 
3'5-inch kinematograph.) 



. i.Maskelyne, with 
K 




Exposure 0'3 second; Sandell "Triple" plate. 




Exposure 0'3 second; Ilford "Special Rapid" plate. 



THE COKOXA, 1900, May 28th. 

(Photographed at Wadesborough, U.S.A., by the Rev. J. M. Bacon. Aperture 
4'1 inches. Focal length 58 inches.) 

K2 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CORONA. 133 

Algiers; I have, therefore, especially examined them for any 
evidence of change in coronal forms. With this view I made a 
careful outline from the Algiers photographs, and another, quite 
independently, from the American negatives. On reducing 
these to the same scale and superposing them, I found the out- 
lines of all the features, that were sufficiently definite to be out- 
lined with certainty, in perfect agreement. The photographs 
examined appear, therefore, to afford no evidence of coronal 
change during the two hours and a half of the passage of the 
shadow from North Carolina to Algiers, although considerable 
changes occurred in the forms of the principal prominences 
as shown on the photographs. 

W. H. WESLEY. 



DARK MARKINGS IN THE SOLAR CORONA.* 

EVERYONE who has examined a series of photographs of total 
solar eclipses is familiar with dark rifts or gaps in the corona. 
Most conspicuous at times of sun-spot minimum are the polar 
rifts, which at such periods open widely and occupy a consider- 
able portion of the sun's polar regions. Rifts, more or less 
dark, also occur in other parts of the corona, sometimes sharply 
cutting into the densest portions. There can be no doubt that 
these rifts are merely interspaces between coronal rays. They 
show the extremely irregular manner in which the corona is 
distributed over the sun's surface. In view of the fact that the 
corona, whatever it may be, is not flat, as it appears during 
an eclipse, but is an object possessing three dimensions, it is 
obvious that a sharply defined rift, cutting into a dense portion 
of the corona, and traceable to the sun's limb, represents a 
gap of most singular form. 

But striking as are these coronal rifts, there is a still more 
interesting class of dark markings that in many cases cannot 
be explained as mere interspaces among the bright rays. Unlike 
the ordinary rifts these dark markings are only occasionally 
seen. A close examination of the original negatives is often 
necessary to detect them, and as a rule they are lost in any 
photographic reproduction. 

The first instance of their occurrence of which I know was 
in 1871. On the eastern side of the corona, in the equatorial 
region, there appears on the photographs a small dark spot 
about 9' from the sun's limb. It does not occur near the 
crossing of any coronal rays, in which situation such an object 
might possibly be simply an interspace, but appears to encroach 
on bright rays. Moreover, it is the centre of three arcs of 
circles, concave towards the sun, with radii of 3', 6', and 10' 

* By W. H. "\VESLKY. (Reprinted from KXOWLEEGE for October,' 1600.) 



134 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1900. 



respectively, the middle one being fairly strong, while the others 
are excessively faint. These singular appearances were thought 
by Mr. Ra,nyard to indicate the existence of a comet, showing 
as a dark object on the background of the corona; but as to 
this I pass no opinion. If it was a comet, its appearance was 




FIG. 1. Diagram of Markings on the Corona of 1871. 

unique, for the comet on the negatives of the 1882 eclipse, and 
the much fainter one found by Schaeberle on his photographs 
of the eclipse of 1893, were both bright objects. But in any 
case it seems impossible that the dark spot and concentric arcs 
on the corona of 1871 can be interspaces between rays, for the 




Prominence 



FIG. 2. Diagram of Markings on the Corona of 1896. 

arcs actually cut through several coronal rays almost at right 
angles, partially obliterating them. The whole appearance is 
extremely difficult to see, but I have traced the dark spot and 
the arcs on several negatives of two different series, and am 
certain of their existence. 

The next example of dark markings occurred in the corona 
of 1896, the eastern side of which exhibited features of a 




PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CORONA. 135 

different kind from any I have examined. I will, however, 
refer only to those bearing on the subject in hand. Almost 
at the sun's equator is a bright double-headed prominence, 
which is distinctly outlined by a strong dark line, following all 
its contours. A little to the north is a small hooked coronal 
ray about 2^' high, apparently springing from a small promi- 
nence. This ray is also outlined in the same manner. But by 
far the most extraordinary appearance is that of a dark roughly 
elliptical ring, about 2^' in its longer axis, which stands on 
the top of the bright prominence. From the summit of the 
ring springs a fah-ly bright, fine ray, which would probably be 
traceable further down towards the limb but that its base 
seems cut off by the ring. There are many other dark streaks 
in this part of the corona, but we may confine our attention 
to the most striking features the outline to the prominence 
and the ring. They are clearly seen on at least two of the 
negatives taken by Mr. Shackleton in Sir G. Baden-Powell's 
expedition to Nova Zembla, and, unlike the markings on the 
corona of 1871, they are quite easy to see under suitable con- 
ditions of illumination. A little reflection will convince anyone 
that the outline can be due to no known photographic effect. 
The image of a bright object (such as a bright prominence) 
may spread itself on the plate, and thus appear enlarged, or 
it might conceivably be surrounded by a halation ring, though 
I feel sure that the exposures during eclipses (except when 
a portion of the sun's surface was photographed) have never 
been nearly sufficient to cause such a ring round a prominence. 
But neither of these well-known photographic effects will 
explain the appearance in the least. Had an observer drawn 
the dark outline surrounding the bright prominence, we should 
have concluded at once that it was a mere effect of contrast, but 
the camera is fortunately not influenced by contrast. Is it 
possible that the prominence had edges enormously brighter 
than its centre, so that the dark outline is a phenomenon of 
reversal? This is improbable in the last degree, in view of the 
small aperture of the instrument and its considerable focal 
length; there was also slight hazy cloud, and the plates 
generally show no signs whatever of over exposure; their 
definition is admirable. There are many instances of reversal 
of the images of prominences in 1882, 1893, 1898, and 1900. 
In 1882 their centres were reversed, but there has been no case 
of reversal of their edges. Besides, the hooked coronal ray is also 
outlined, and that was certainly not bright enough for reversal, 
so this explanation breaks down. Then we have the elliptical 
ring, for which there seems absolutely no explanation, except 
that it is really a dark marking of some kind. It is surely 
absurd to suggest that it can be a mere space between coronal 
rays ; we should have to imagine a tunnel cut through the body 
of the corona, directed precisely in the line of sight, and a plug 
of coronal matter lying along the centre of that tunnel but 
not touching its sides. 



136 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

It will be seen that in the above cases the argument for the 
objective existence of dark markings is based upon the form 
and character of the markings, and not upon their actual dark- 
ness. Neither in 1871 nor in 1896 are they nearly as dark- as 
the sky ; but have we any instances of markings in the corona 
that are actually darker than the sky? If so, it appears to me 
that their objective existence is proved beyond a doubt. I 
believe we have such evidence, but here great caution is 
required, for although the camera is, as has been said, unaffected 
by contrast, the eye which examines the photographs is much 
affected by it, and we may be very easily deceived. 

I have before me two negatives of the eclipse of 1898, taken 
by Mr. F. Bacon at Buxar, near Benares; they are rather 
over-developed, the lower portions of the corona are extremely 
dense and opaque, but the focus is excellent, and the outer 
portions well shown. The scale is a little over half an inch 
for the moon's diameter. On first looking at these I was struck 




Fro. 3. Diagram of Markings on the Corona of 1898. 

by the unusual sharpness of definition of some of the rays of 
the great southern rift; but on more careful examination with 
various illuminations it seemed possible that this sharp defini- 
tion is due to nothing less than to two or more fine dark rays 
(of course bright on the negative) lying between some of the 
bright polar rays near the western boundary of the polar rift. 
There is nothing unusual or extraordinary in the position of 
these dark rays. I at first considered them to be merely spaces 
between the ordinary polar rays, but I now think that they are 
slightly darker than the sky or than the faint light which forms 
their background. The development has been carried far 
enough for the light of this background to impress itself on the 
plates; but for this fact the markings would appear simply as 
interspaces, but on these plates I think I can just see the ends 
of the rays, terminating at about two-thirds of a lunar diameter 
from the limb. They cannot be traced to the limb, as they 
are lost among the mass of bright rays, and they are lost in 
long exposure negatives. These markings are far more difficult 
to see than those in 1896, but if they are darker than the sky, 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CORONA. 139 

we seem to have taken a considerable step towards proving 
their objective existence. 

We now come to the negatives taken by Mr. Maunder at 
Algiers during the eclipse of May last. On two negatives 
taken on Sandell plates with very long exposures, and on a 
series of negatives exposed by Miss Maunder with ^ sec. 
exposures in a stationary camera, are certain dark streaks of 
much the same character as those of 1898, but unlike these, 
they are most easily seen; in fact on some of the plates they 
strike the eye at once. One of them forms a sharp boundary 
to the northern edge of the western equatorial streamer, and 
one bounds in the same manner its southern edge, whilst another 
radiates from the limb near the centre of the great southern rift ; 
there are several others that may be suspected. The only point in 
doubt is whether they are unusually definite spaces or rifts be- 
tween bright rays, only seeming dark by contrast, or whether they 
are actually darker than the sky. If they are darker than the 
sky we seem forced to admit that they are real, however im- 
possible it may be to offer any physical explanation for their 
existence. We cannot isolate these fine, narrow dark streaks, 
so as to avoid the effect of contrast. They are visible on all 
the six plates of the short exposure series, and the dark mark- 
ings forming the north and south boundaries of the western 
portion of the corona are very strikingly shown on the long 
exposure negatives. These dark rays bounding the coronal 
extension are extremely remarkable, and it seems impossible 
to regard them as effects of contrast. For while on the one 
side they are each bounded by the edge of the coronal streamer, 
there is apparently no ray bounding them on the other side, 
and they appear to extend beyond the coronal streamer itself 
If this is so, they are obviously darker than the sky, or the 
faint nearly uniform lierht which forms their background.* 
The dark marking bounding the southern edge of the western 
coronal extension is the most conspicuous. 

The narrow, slightly curved dark ray near the centre of the 
southern rift is well shown on the short exposure negatives. 
It has a distinct termination at a distance of about half a 
lunar diameter from the limb a termination in fact more 
definite than those of the bright coronal rays. It seems 
decidedly darker than its background of sky or faint coronal 
light. If this marking is merely a rift, or interspace, it must 
be a rift closed at its outer extremity, which appears a most 
improbable supposition. 

I am quite unable to offer any explanation of such features as 
these, but I think we cannot resist the evidence of their reality. 
As Mr. Maunder has said, they must be caused " by the inter- 

* It is probable, as Mr. Maunder has pointed out (KNOWLEDGE, August, 1900), 
that there is a considerable amount of diffused coronal light beyond the limits of 
the detailed corona. This appears to be borne out by Prof. Turner's photometric 
measures of the negatives of the eclipse of 1893. 



140 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

position of actual dark absorbing matter between ourselves 
and the general diffused coronal glow"; so that the corona 
appears to be " not wholly an emission, but partly an absorp- 
tion effect." The nearest analogy to them are the black rays 
in the prominences to which Trouvelot drew attention, and 
which I believe Mr. Evershed has confirmed. 

I have also 'examined some excellent negatives taken by 
Miss Bacon at Wadesborough, U.S.A., which clearly show the 
dark markings visible on Mr. Maunder's plates. 

W. H. WESLEY. 



THE CORONAL EXTENSIONS ON THE PHOTOGRAPHS.* 

INASMUCH as the pair of photographs to which, in the Indian 
Eclipse, the longest exposure was given, showed the coronal 
streamers to the greatest distance from the sun, and, as of any 
two comparable photographs, the one which had the longer 
exposure showed the streamers to the greater length, it seemed 
clear that the duration of the exposure was a determining 
element ; and it left undecided the question whether the limit of 
effective exposure had been reached. We, therefore, resolved to 
give as long an exposure in the eclipse just passed as its conditions 
permitted, and it had been our hope to have made these exposures 
equivalent to 400 seconds with f/15. Circumstances obliging us 
to proceed to Algiers instead of Elche we had to cut down this 
exposure to 48 seconds with f/6, corresponding to 300 with f/15. 
The result was that so far from obtaining longer streamers than 
in 1898, the longest ray photographed was barelv half the length 
of the great ray seen in the Indian Eclipse. Further and this 
is important the ray is traceable to almost the same distance 
upon other photographs which we took with exposures relatively 
but l/48th as long, and they are seen to fully as great an extent 
on photographs taken by Mr. C. Davidson under the Astronomer 
Royal's direction, at Ovar, with an exposure equivalent to but 
l/7th of our own. 

The question is as to the cause of the failure to register the 
extensions as far as not to say further than two years ago. 
So long as lengthened exposure meant lengthened ray, so long 
failure to show a streamer beyond a certain point might simply 
mean that there was more ray beyond, but that it was too faint 
to record itself in the time given. But since in the past eclipse 
photographs with such widely different exposures agree in 
placing the termination of the ray practically at the same point, 
and that point just where the eye also placed it, it seems fair to 
conclude that this was where it actually ended so far as we are 
concerned. The termination, however, might be due to more 
than one cause ; it might be due not only to the matter of the 
ray coming to an end ; it might be that further out it was too 

* Bv ME. and MRS. WALTER MAT T \DF.R. 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CORONA. 

faint to be perceived through the veil of our atmosphere; or it 
might be overpowered by the glare due to the scattered light in 
our own atmosphere. There can be no doubt that there was 
more of this diffused illumination in the late eclipse than in 1898 ; 
necessarily so ; as the eclipse was a shorter one; the breadth of 
the shadow track was narrower; and at mid-totality less of the 
brightest portions of the corona were concealed. All observers 
concur in saying that it was a very bright eclipse there was no 
real darkness. As to whether the air was as clear this year as 
two years ago, it seems exceedingly improbable that the con- 
ditions were the same at all the stations ; at Algiers, at any rate, 
there was little cause for complaint. The observation recorded 
on p. 150 shows that there was no appreciable sky-glare in the 
neighbourhood of Mercury; nor was there the slightest trace of 
the great coronal streamer within the telescopic field which had 
Mercury as its centre. 

It will be noted in Mr. Wesley's description of the corona from 
the photographs, that he points out that the synclinal rays were 
less strongly marked in 1900 than in 1898. But the rod-like 
rays, first photographed in the former year, are majiifestly the 
terminations of the synclinal curves ; we may expect then that 
when the synclinal structure is feebly marked, the rod-like rays 
will be relatively short and faint. Further, these rays are 
evidently very irregularly distributed round the sun, and we 
cannot expect them to be always at right-angles to the line of 
sight; on the contrary, they must be presented to us under 
every variety of foreshortening. 

The next eclipse, that of May 18th, 1901, should, if weather 
conditions be favourable, give a specially good opportunity for 
settling this question. Being a large eclipse, it will probably be 
a dark one, since the shadow track will be wide, and the amount 
of the inner corona which will be covered at mid-totality will 
be considerable. It seems desirable, therefore, that every variety 
of exposure should be given, including some for the whole length 
of time available ; that is to say, for the whole time that the 
chromosphere as well as the sun itself is covered. 

E. WALTER MAUNDER. 
A. S. D. MAUNDER. 



142 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 



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PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CORONA. 143 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE PARTIAL PHASE.* 

BESIDE our attempt to photograph the long coronal streamers, 
one great object with us in the recent eclipse was to push a 
little further the experiment which we had made in India in 
photographing the corona out of totality. For this purpose we 
took in all some forty photographs during the partial phase, 
with varying instruments and exposures, and our experiments 
have been very strikingly supplemented by the work which Mr. 
Nevil Maskelyne, F.R.A.S., carried on with his kinematograph 
in America. Mr. Maskelyne's instrument had an aperture of 
3^ inches, which was stopped down before and after totality to 
an aperture of 3/8th of an inch. The instrument was run for 
about 5 1 minutes, commencing some 25 seconds before totality, 
and running for nearly 4 minutes after totality was ended. In 
all 1187 exposures were made, 87 before totality, 299 during 
totality, and 801 after. The corona is seen very definitely on the 
first exposure, and can be traced right away to number 841, 
that is to say, to number 455 after the return of sunlight. 
Allowing 0.29 seconds for the mean interval between the middle 
of one exposure and that of the next, this gives us for the last 
photograph showing the corona, the time 2m. 12s. after the 
return of sunlight. This duration is worked out by assuming 
that the duration of the photographic eclipse was the same as 
that of the visual, the latter having been observed by Prof. Flint 
with a 3-inch equatorial, at the same station of Wadesborough. 

The principal exposures which we ourselves made for this work 
were in three sets of twelve each, taken with the three following 
instruments: 1st, a photographic lens, aperture 4-inches, 
stopped down to 1 inches, and focal length 34 inches. 2nd, 
the Dallmeyer stigmatic lens of 1 in. aperture, and 9 in. focus; 
3rd, a pin-hole camera, that is to say one without a lens, 
aperture 1/32 of an inch, and distance of plate from pin-hole, 
15| inches. A deep yellow glass was placed immediately in front 
of the sensitive plate with this last camera. The use of a colour 
screen materially altering the wave-length of the light most 
effective upon the plate, should theoretically alter the distance of 
best definition, but in practice, so far as our experiments upon 
the sun were concerned, we did not find any great difference. 
The theoretical distance for an aperture of 1/32 inch is 16 inches, 
and the diameter of the pin-hole may easily have been slightly 
in error. Double the aperture would of course have required 
four times the distance, and consequently four times the exposure. 
We concluded, therefore, that whilst a smaller aperture would 
give so small a distance that the resulting image would be too 
small to be of value, a much larger aperture would be open to 
the equally serious drawback of requiring too long an exposure. 

One instrumental precaution, the necessity for which we had 
fully foreseen, we were not able to take. This was the provision 

* By Mr. and Mrs. WALTER MAUNDER. 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 



of a diaphragm, so arranged, as to prevent any of the direct light 
of the sun falling upon the plate ; but our cameras were on too 
small a scale, and our guiding telescopes not sufficiently rigid for 
this to be possible. We, therefore, made no attempt to provide 
such a screen, and our experiments were made with the image 
of the sun itself falling on the plate. 




MR. E. HODGE, HOTEL DE LA KEGEXCE, ALGIERS. 

It will be seen that this radically altered the conditions of the 
problem before us. If the sun itself could be screened from the 
plate, then, the problem of photographing the corona resolves 
itself into one of detecting a very minute difference of brightness 
in a very high light. For this purpose, there is no particular 
advantage, but rather the reverse in using a multi-coated 
plate. The exposure evidently should be of the very 
briefest, so that the action of sky-glare alone may be 
hardly effective, whilst the conjoint actions of sky-glare 



PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CORONA. 145 

and corona may be just appreciable. In such a case 
there would be no question of keeping down the effect 
of a very brilliant light whilst a faint light is enabled to make 
itself felt. Our idea, therefore, would be, in conjunction with 
such a diaphragm, to use a somewhat slow single-coated plate 
of fine grain. As it was, we were obliged to allow the sun to fall 
upon the plate, and therefore used, as in India, the Sandell 
triple-coated plate. All we could expect to gain was a know- 
ledge of the kind of exposures which were most effective in giving 
the corona in the face of a small amount of sunshine, with the 
possibility of our tracing it further into the partial phase than 
we did in India. We introduced a pin-hole camera into our 
battery of instruments in order to gain if possible some light 
on a third question, namely, the influence of aperture in securing 
the corona, both absolute aperture and aperture relative to focal 
length. As regards the first and third of these points, our photo- 
graphs still require much further examination before we can 
report upon them, but we have been able to record the presence 
of the corona very considerably further from totality than we 
did in 1898. As to the use of the coloured screen, we consider 
our experiments as so far inconclusive. Our hope had been that, 
cutting off the rays of short wave-length, which are those most 
effective in sky-glare, due to scattering by small particles, we 
might have brought the corona into a little greater relative dis- 
tinctness ; but of course the practical efficiency of such a screen 
will depend entirely upon the question as to the kind of rays 
in which the corona is richest. Our attempt was in no sense 
on the lines of Mr. Shackleton's ingenious and hopeful suggestion 
of photographing through screens which should only allow light 
of the quality of the green coronium line to pass through. This, 
could it be achieved, and could the distribution of coronium 
round the sun be thus ascertained, would be a most notable 
advance, one by all means to be desired, but it would not be, 
in the strict sense, photographing the corona itself. 

Another point upon which we hoped to get some light, but for 
which the present experiments were not sufficient, was in relation 
to the principle laid down by Prof. F. L. O. Wadsworth, as to 
the effect of the diminution of aperture in diminishing the 
relative action on the plate of sky-glare. This was especially in 
our minds when we decided to use the pin-hole. 

Mr. Maskelyne's kinematograph film is of special interest by 
the way in which it enables us to trace the gradual fading of the 
corona in the face of the increasing sunlight. The aperture was 
the same with all the film photographs after the diaphragm was 
put on, the exposure was the same in all cases, the only 
variable was the increasing arc of sunlight. The exposure was 
equivalent to about l/60th of a second with f/15, and the film 
may be considered as about as quick as an ordinary " rapid " 
plate. It is very instructive of the conditions of the problem to 
note how quickly, after the first bead of sunlight is seen, the outer 
corona fades and disappears; and also that when the aperture 



146 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1900. 

is cut down, diminishing the exposure almost to l/90th of what 
it was when the aperture was full, the corona is almost lost 
at first, but reappears, and for some little time becomes stronger 
as the sunlight strengthens, fading again when the sky-glare 
becomes too strong for that exposure and aperture. There can 
be no doubt that could the exposure have been gradually 
shortened as the sunlight gradually increased, the corona would 
have been traced on the film further still. 

The appearance of the corona in the partial phase is not 
specially coronaJike. The evidence that the faint, nearly uniform 
ring of light is the corona, is to be found in the fact that the 
disc of the moon is to be seen dark against it, its outline clearly 
defined. 

Several other observers took photographs of the partial phase ; 
in particular we may mention a very beautiful little picture 
taken by Mr. E. C. Willis about 30 seconds before the commence- 
ment of totality with f/12i, and exposure \ second. Two 
others taken respectively 8 minutes and 4 minutes before 
totality are even more interesting; for whilst the latter shows 
no trace of the moon's outline, the former, when the sunlight 
was so much stronger, shows, though very faintly, the whole 
of the moon's limb. 

Many partial phase photographs show some bright, straight 
rays proceeding from one or both cusps of the sun. They are 
very well shown in a photograph taken by Mr. Hodge. These 
same rays are also seen on photographs taken here in England, 
where the eclipse of course was only partial. They are necessarily 
not coronal, as they are not seen in totality, and they appear to 
be due to some sort of reflection from the plate itself, as they do 
not seem to be shown on films. They are also shown on some of 
the photographs taken with the pin-hole camera, but here they 
are less strongly marked. 

To sum up, we learn from Mr. Maskelyne's film, that to secure 
the inner corona from half-minute to one minute after totality is 
over, a.n exposure of about one-hundredth of what is necessary for 
a full representation of the corona in totality is required. Earlier 
the exposure should be somewhat longer for best effect, later it 
should be diminished. In this way Mr. Maskelyne has followed 
the corona two minutes and twelve seconds after totality on a 
single coated film, and we have increased our Indian record of 
thirty-nine seconds to five minutes, very faintly shown on a 
Sandell triple-coat, and this again is extended to eight minutes 
by Mr. Willis's photograph. The advance made is a real advance 
indeed, but exceedingly small as compared with the full magni- 
tude of the problem. Indeed our progress is rather towards a 
truer appreciation of its difficulties than towards its solution. 

E. WALTER MAUNDER. 
A. S. D. MAUNDER. 




CHAPTER XIII. 

BRIGHTNESS DURING TOTALITY. 

THE observers at every station without exception noticed how 
bright the eclipse was even during totality. This was of course 
chiefly due to the fact that the eclipse was a very short one; 
the excess of the moon's diameter over that of the sun was but 
slight, so that the most brilliant regions of the corona were 
exposed in mid-totality. It appears certain that the general 
illumination was greater than in the Indian Eclipse, 1898, but 
it does not therefore follow that the corona itself was brighter 
than in that year, that is to say, intrinsically brighter; indeed, 
Prof. YOUNG ( Wadesborou^h, U.S.A.) is distinctly of opinion 
that it was not so bright, but that a larger area of its brighter 
regions was exposed to view at any time. 

Mr. WHITMELL supplies the summary of the observations at 
Navalmoral on this question : 

At totality the light decidedly exceeded that of a bright 
full moon, and was of quite a different quality, being warm like 
a twilight illumination, and not like the cold green-grey of 
moonlight. The large luminous corona, and the small excess 
(19".4, or more probably 18". 5) of the moon's semi-diameter 
over that of the sun, made this eclipse a bright one. 

Mr. BUCKLEY : Light seemed about equal to that of a full 
moon, but different, and more like a very late summer twilight. 

Dr. STOKES : The light was sufficient to sketch the corona by 
without any difficulty. 

Mr. E. HOWAETH: Very little diminution in the light was noticed 
until the sun became quite a thin crescent. At totality the 
change was marked and instantaneous, though there was still 
light enough to enable the dial of a watch to be distinctly seen. 
As light flashed out at the close of totality, it was very striking 
to notice what an enormous difference a small portion of direct 
sunlight produced. Almost immediately after totality, Mercury 
disappeared, the corona died out like a flash, and the landscape 
almost at once assumed the aspect of day. In ten minutes, 
though a large portion of the sun was still covered, the aspect 
was that of a broad sunlight day, and all interest in the eclipse 
was over. 

Mr. LA GUIDARA : It was as dark as when the first shadows of 
night fall on our landscapes. [I may add that Mr. Guidara was 

147 T 9 



148 THE TOTAL SOL.UI ECLIPSE, 1900. 

good enough to call out during totality the seconds from a watch, 
and that he found it easily readable.] 

Mr. W. F. STANLEY : There was light enough to distinguish 
the grain in a piece of grey granite. 

Rev. C. J. STEWARD : Light enough to sketch by, and to read 
thermometers. 

Miss W. FOSTER : The return of light seemed more rapid than 
the oncoming of darkness. 

Miss L. FOSTER : No inconvenience in pencil sketching. 

Mrs. CONSTABLE (at Talavera) : Plenty of light to read and 
sketch by, far more than moonlight would give. 

Mr. E. HOWARTH, in his account of his work, supplements his 




SI T XSET NEAR ELCHE, MAY 2GTK. 

note, given above, as follows : I was specially desirous of 
observing the approach of the shadow across the earth and sky, 
and therefore gave careful attention to the light on the north- 
west side, the landscape along there being flat and open. As 
the shadow advanced over the sun, there was a perceptible and 
welcome cooling of the air, though the diminution of light 
was not very marked. A photograph of the landscape to the 
north-west, with the Sierra de Gredos in the distance, taken on 
arrival, sliows all the details in the foreground, though the 
distant mountains can scarcely be seen on it. From this time 
onwards there was a very decided darkening of the landscape 
on the north-west&rn side, and it was distinctly lighter on the 
south-eastern side. Another photograph was taken of the 



BRIGHTNESS DURING TOTALITY. 119 

landscape towards the Sierra de Gredos at 3h. 48m. G.M.T., and 
although in this the general features can be made out there is a 
total absence of the detail shown in the same view taken about 
half-an-hour earlier. In this later photograph, however, the 
distant hills can be seen more plainly than in the earlier one, 
though in neither of them are they prominently shown. Another 
exposure made about two minutes before totality showed nothing 
whatever on the plate. Just at this time, too, the fading light 
assumed a different tone, becoming decidedly rosy in colour, in 
marked contrast to the darkening grey just previously prevailing. 
This change of colour was strikingly emphasised in the few 
patches of cloud to the west, whose whiteness became richly 
diffused with a red glow. Up to the very moment of totality 
I was very much impressed with the great power of the direct 
sunlight, for when even the thinnest perceptible portion of 
the sun was still uncovered, it was possible to see the objects 
round about with perfect ease. The actual moment of totality 
was unmistakable, and, as a means of comparison, seemed to 
me like the .switching off of an electric light. I immediately 
looked at the watch I had brought with me to note the time 
this being a Kew certificated watch and the actual time of the 
beginning of totality was 4h. 6m. 56s. G.M.T. This time was 
noted independently of any one else. Venus had been visible 
some minutes before, and now Mercury flashed into view below 
the lower western limb. During totality I carefully observed 
the sun, both with the naked eye and with a pair of opera- 
glasses, but saw no trace of a comet or any planet inside the 
orbit of Mercury. The end of totality was quite as unmistak- 
able as the beginning, the great change in the light being almost 
startlingly rapid, and it occurred at 4h. 8m. 16s., G.M.T. , the 
total phase lasting exactly 80 seconds. During totality the light 
was strong enough to show the dial of a watch without any 
difficulty, and the near landscape could all the time be dimly 
seen. As soon as totality ended, the corona and Mercury all 
disappeared, with no appreciable interval between, and the light 
so quickly increased that I took a photograph of our party 
about fifteen minutes afterwards, which came out quite 
distinctly. 

M. MOYE (Elche) : The obscuration was not intense, all sur- 
rounding objects were distinctly seen ; a newspaper, the divisions 
of a watch could be read without artificial light. The general 
illumination was very much greater than given by the full 
moon. 

Mr. WALTER MAUNDER (Hotel de la Regence, Algiers) : This 
was much the brightest of the four eclipses at which I have 
been present, and the darkness never approached that of a 
bright night at the full of the moon. 

But though the illumination during totality was thus very 
considerable, it must be remembered that the change from even 



150 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 



the last speck of sunlight to complete totality is very great 
indeed, as the following observation will show. 

Mrs. WALTER MAUNDER (Hotel de la Regence, Algiers) had 
two photographic cameras mounted upon a 4-inch portable 
equatorial, kindly lent by Mr. W. Coleman, F.R.A.S. " As the 
equatorial had ro driving clock, I proposed to direct the telescope 
upon Mercury, and bringing it to the cro<sswires in the centre 




Miss Stevens. Mrs. Maunder. Mr. H. Ellis. 

EOOF OP THE HOTEL DE LA ESSENCE, ALGIEES. 



of the field, to follow by hand driving. I had found by practice 
that I could turn the right ascension tangent screw with great 
regularity and smoothness for a much longer time than the 
period of totality. Mercury was picked up without the slightest 
difficulty, and brought to the cross-wires early in the partial 
phrrse. and for the last two or three minutes before second 
contact I followed by it, driving by hand, without any difficulty, 
the spider-lines being easily seen against the background of the 
illuminated sky. But the instant that the eclipse became total, 



BRIGHTNESS DURING TOTALITY. 



151 



that instant the field of view of my telescope became dead black, 
as if a shutter had fallen. But for the bright shining of 
Mercury I might have thought that some one had put the cap on 
the telescope. There was no gradual fading out of the light as 
second contact approached; the general illumination of the 
field in the telescope did not seem sensibly to diminish during 
the last few minutes of the partial phase ; at the moment of 
second contact it went out entirely and at once." 




THE LIBRARY, YEUKES OBSEUVATOBY. 

The photograph in the centre of the picture is from Mr. W. H. Wesley's 
drawing of the Corona of 1886, from the photographs taken at Grenada and 
Carriacou by Dr. Schuster and Mr. Maunder. 



Similarly at the end of totality the appearance of the first 
point or fragment of the sun's disk makes an instant and 
enormous difference to the light. It must be remembered that 
speaking roughly, and in round figures, the sun is, area for area, 
100,000 times as bright as the brightest region of the corona. 
The results of the Indian Eclipse seem to show that the corona 
can be traced both visually and photographically to a distance, 
where its brightness is scarcely 1/1, 000th part as great as that 
of the corona close to the sun. In other words we pass in one 
short minute from the observation of a body whose intrinsic 
brilliancy we may put as 100,000,000, to one, portions of which 



152 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1900. 

have a brightness no greater than unity. Need the moral be 
drawn, that those who intend in an eclipse to draw the faint 
coronal extensions, will be wise not to watch the progress of the 
partial phase? 

The light therefore diminishes suddenly at the beginning of 
totality; it increases again suddenly at the end. The question 
arises, Do both changes proceed at the same rate? To the eye, 
the effect certainly is of a much greater rapidity in the recovery 
of the light than in its loss; but this may easily be a mere 
psychological effect. It becomes important, therefore, to have 
some photographic evidence on the subject. Miss Bacon, tor 
this purpose, in 1898 in India, conceived the plan of taking 
a series of photographs of the landscape at regular and equal 
intervals, before and after totality, giving precisely the same 
exposure to all the plates, and developing them at the same 
time and under the same conditions. The result then obtained 
seemed to show most conclusively that the return of sunlight was 
actually, as it appears visually to be, much more rapid than its 
withdrawal ; the light five minutes after the end of totality 
being very much greater than that five minutes before, and, 
indeed, almost equal to that fifteen minutes before. 

Miss Bacon's example was very widely followed during the 
eclipse just passed ; not only English astronomers but also those 
of other countries following her lead. Thus a very successful 
series of exposures of this character were obtained by the 
astronomers of the Madrid Observatory at Plasencia, and by 
M. Leroux a,t Bou Zarea, Algiers. 

The work of taking these " Gathering and Departing Gloom 
Photographs " was undertaken by the members of the Asso- 
ciation at three stations, namely, by Miss BACON at Wades- 
borough, by Lady McCujRE at Elche, and by M. ROGER Du 
CAMP at the Hotel de la Regence, Algiers, who also exposed 
photographs for the same purpose on behalf of Mr. Walter 
Maunder. These last proved to be systematically over-exposed, 
the extremely actinic qualities of the Algerian sunlight having 
been much under-estimated. They seem, however, to point to 
considerable variability in the rate of progress of the change ; 
thus of a series of eighteen exposures six pairs give the post- 
totality light as greater than the corresponding light in pre- 
totality ; whilst the others that is to say three pairs give the 
pre-totality light as the greater. Miss Bacon found a similar 
discrepancy, but on the whole her Indian results were reversed, 
the recovery of light appearing to proceed more slowly 
than its loss. Four extremely beautiful photographs, taken by 
Lady McClure, at ten and twenty minutes before and after 
totality, also give the following anomalous result: 

20min. before totality less light than 20 min. after totality. 

lOmin. before totality greater light than lOmin. after totality. 

It appears, then, that the question has assumed a complexity 
which renders it deserving of very careful attention in future 
eclipses. 




OF TF 

UNIVERSITY 

# 
,,-"^ 




BRIGHTNESS DURING TOTALITY. 



153 



TWILIGHT ILLUMINATION. 

AFTER the eclipse of 1898, two members of the Association, quite 
independently, and in ignorance of what the other was doing, 




POLAR AND DECLINATION AXES OF THE GREAT YEBKES 40-ixcii REFRACTOH. 



attempted to estimate the time at which the general illumination 
after sundown corresponded to that during mid-totality. The 
results were much more accordant than might have been 
expected, and in consequence several observers tried the same 



154 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 



experiment during this eclipse. Of the six observations made on 
this occasion, two stand out, but the other four, which were 
entirely independent, are in the most remarkable agreement. 
This may perhaps be mere coincidence, but it is desirable 
that an observation, so easily made, should be repeated on every 
possible occasion. It seems quite possible that a really careful 
observer may make this observation so well as to render it a most 
convenient method of comparing between the illumination at 
different eclipses. On the present occasion, it is perhaps not 
safe to say more than that the results point to 1898 not having 
been quite so bright as 1900; and that the general illumination 
corresponded to that of twilight when the sun is between 6 
and 7 below the horizon. 

TWILIGHT ILLUMINATION JUDGED EQUAL TO THAT OF TOTALITY. 



Observer. 


Place. 


Date, 1900. 


G. M. T. 


Interval.* 


Sun below 
Horizon. 


Remarks. 


Roberts 


Algiers 


May2S 


h. in. 
7 30 


in. 
37i 


6'8 


As dark as totality. 


Brook 


Algiers ,, 28 


7 32 


395 


6-4 


>i u 


Carpenter, Gare , 
and Moore > 


Manzanares 


28 


7 52 


27J 


46 





Backhouse 


Salamanca ,, 30 


8 34 


52| 


89 


Darker than totality. 


Sharp 


Pobladura 30 


16 10 


45f 


6'9 


As dark as totality. 


Backhouse 


Vigo June 1 


8 42 


43 


6-5 





The similar observations made after the eclipse of 1898, January 22, in India, 
are added for comparison : 



Observer. 


Place. 


Date, 1898. 


G. M. T. 


Interval. 


Sun below 
Horizon. 


lie marks. 








h. m. 


111. 


o 




Backhouse 


Benares 


Jan. 23 


36J 


34J 


7'4 


As dark as totality. 


Backhouse and ) 
Sharp j 


Benares 


,, 24 


32\ 


30J 


6'4 


,. ,. 


Maunder 


Nagpur 


26 


56 


30J 


67 


" 



After geometrical sunset or before geometrical sunrise. 



INTEGRATING PHOTOGRAPHS. 

MR. F. GARE at Manzanares, and Mr. E. W. Johnson at Elche, 
proposed to repeat and extend the experiments which had been 
made at Buxar, in 1898, for measuring the total photographic 
radiation of the corona, by exposing sensitive plates to its general 
light under a set of graduated screens. Good results have been 
obtained from the plates exposed to the corona during totality. 
A comparison of these with plates since exposed by Mr. Gare 
and Mr. A. II. Johnston to the light of a standard candle at a 
distance of one metre give the corona as six times the bright- 
ness of the candle; so that the recent eclipse would seem to 



BRIGHTNESS DURING TOTALITY. 155 

have been between 30 and 40 per cent, brighter than the one 
of 1898 at Buxar, and about ten times as bright as the Full 
Moon. 

Plates were also exposed at both stations to the partially 
eclipsed sun before and after totality, but these are all much 
over exposed. These plates were exposed at 20, 15, 10, and 5 
minutes before and after mid-totality, with an exposure of 10 
seconds, and in every case the light has penetrated the whole 
of the screen, and the plates are consequently of little use for 
purposes of measurement. A comparison of the density of the 
deposits does not, however, appear to confirm the difference 
between the light before and after totality apparent in photo- 
graphs taken at the eclipse of 1898. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
THE PRISMATIC OPERA-GLASS. 

CHAPTER V. of " The Indian Eclipse, 1898," contained a short 
summary of the history of spectroscopic observations as applied 
to total eclipses of the sun, and descriptions of the chief forms of 
spectroscopes used in eclipse work, so tbat there will be no need to 
recapitulate. In the eclipse of 1900, several members of the 
Association took out with them an important spectroscopic plant, 
and much exceedingly valuable work was done. Thus in America, 
Prof. C. A. Young and Prof. G. E. Hale; in Portugal, Mr. F. W. 
Dyson ; in Spain, at Plasencia, Sir Howard Grubb, Dr. A. A. 
Rambaut, and Mr. W. E. Wilson, and at Elche, Mr. A. Fowler; 
in Algeria, Mr. H. F. Newall at Bou-Zai'ea, and Mr. J. Evershed 
at Pont Mazafraii; all made spectroscopic work the chief item 
in their programmes, and took powerful instruments for the 
purpose. But these observers, having been equipped or sent out 
either by Government or by some learned body other than the 
Association, do not report in this volume. Their objects were chiefly 
to register by means of photography that spectrum of bright lines 
which is seen for some two seconds just at the beginning and end 
of totality, and which is now so well known as the " Flash," and 
also the spectrum of the corona itself during totality. The types 
of instruments employed have already been described on pages 61 
and 62 of the " Indian Eclipse," the forms which were most preferred 
being those of -the " prismatic camera " and of the " analysing 
spectrograph." Mr. Evershed's chief instrument was, however, quite 
a novel form of prismatic camera, inasmuch as he used a train of 
two large prisms in connection with a silver-on-glass reflector, 
instead of a camera of the usual kind. The experiment was most 
successful ; the mirror, of course, bringing all the rays, no matter 
what their ref rangibility, to the same focus ; the lines, therefore, on 
his photographs are in perfect focus throughout. 

But there was one spectroscopio instrument, though but of 
humble size, that was made use of by several Members in the 
different expeditions of the Association. This was the " prismatic 
opera-glass " ; that is to say, a binocular, one tube of which was 
furnished with some arrangement for producing a spectrum. In 
India, in 1898, Mr. Walter Maunder had such a binocular, fitted 
with a small direct- vision prism before the eye-piece, and the same 
arrangement was used in 1900, by Miss Dixon, at Wadesborough, 
in North Carolina. But our ingenious Member, Mr. Thorp, 

156 



THE PRISMATIC OPERA- GLASS. 



157 



having devised a means of reproducing gratings on celluloid, 
arranged a more efficient instrument, by providing " prismatic 
gratings" to be placed before one of the object glasses of the 
binocular, and it was such an arrangement that was most generally 
employed by our Members in the past eclipse. The observation, 
which offered a spectacle of extreme beauty, had, like most of those 
undertaken with far more powerful and pretentious instruments, 
a two-fold purpose: (1) To note the moment at the beginning and 
end of totality, when the continuous spectrum due to sunlight has 
disappeared, and the constellation of innumerable bright lines of 
every colour, which we know as the " Flash," has for an instant 




Mr. T. THORP ; HOTEL DE LA REGEXCE, ALGIERS. 



taken its place. This observation is most useful, in order to enable 
the watcher to signify to other workers around that the total phase 
has actually commenced, and the reverse observation as the Sun is 
about to emerge enables him to give warning that it is about to 
end. (2) During totality the one tube of the opera glass would 
give an actual view of the corona itself, the other would show its 
spectrum. In this second case we should have an image of the 
corona, depicted in light of several colours, each colour representing 
a line in the spectrum of some coronal gas. The chief line of the 
corona is one in the green, known for many years as " 1474K," 
since the position of the line when first discovered was supposed 
to correspond with the reading " 1474," on the scale of Kirchoff's 



158 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

spectroscope. The position was shown by Mr. Fowler and Mr. 
Evershed, in the Indian eclipse, to be considerably in error, but the 
name is still likely to cling to the line. At present we know 
of no element, accessible to us here on earth, which gives the same 
green line, and, therefore, we know nothing of the properties of the 
gas which produces it. For the sake of distinctness, however, the 
name of " Coronium " has been bestowed upon it. Such an 
instrument as the " prismatic opera-glass " enables an observer to 
compare, at once, and with particularity, the shape of the corona 
as given by the coronal line " 1474K," with the corona as seen 
directly ; in other words, to ascertain at a glance the distribution 
in the corona of this strange and foreign gas, " coronium." 

Dr. A. M. "W. DOWNING (Plasencia). The instrument used by me 
was a binocular, to one of the object glasses of which Mr. Thorp 
had fitted one of his transmission gratings. I was able, therefore, 
to observe the spectrum of the corona through one tube of the 
binocular, and through the other to observe the corona directly. 

I noticed that the coronium arc was much broader and more 
diffused than the neighbouring arcs of magnesium and helium, 
which were visible in the spectroscope at the same time. I 
estimated the average breadth of the coronium arc to be about one- 
eighth of the diameter ; but at a special part it was very much 
broader, being approximately one-fifth of the diameter. This part 
corresponded to a position angle of about 270, and the observation 
would tend to show that this additional amount of coronium was 
present in the corona near the base of the great coronal extension 
on the sun's western limb. According to this observation, there- 
fore, the general height of coronium in the corona on this occasion 
was a little over 100,000 miles; but at this special part, near the 
base of this branch of the corona, it extended to about 180,000 
miles. 

Two of the party at Navalmoral used prismatic opera-glasses, 
viz., Mr. C. T. Whitmell and Mr. O'Callaghan. They report as 
follows : 

Mr. WHITMELL. I observed with a low-power Galilean binocular, 
the right object glass of which was fitted with one of Mr. Thorp's 
excellent diffraction gratings attached to a prism. The binocular 
was so held that the length of the spectrum was parallel to the 
moon's movement, the violet end lying in the direction towards 
which the moon was going. The left tube of the binocular 
remained as usual, so that the actual corona might be seen 
through it. A sliding wedge of neutral-tinted glass was in front 
of the right eyepiece, and an ordinary dark sunglass in front of 
the left one. These were removed just before totality. 

The changes in the spectrum enabled me to give the signals of 
the beginning and the ending of totality. 

As the solar area diminished, the curved black Fraunhofer lines, 
indicated at 3h. 50m., G.M.T., by a few shadowy bands, narrowed 
rapidly, increased greatly in number, and grew sharply defined, the 



THE PRISMATIC OPERA-GLASS. 



159 



D sodium line becoming distinctly double just before totality. The 
concavity of these dark lines was turned at first towards the right 
lower quadrant. Besides the dark D lines, I saw the dark lines 
C and F of hydrogen, three magnesium lines in the green, and 




EVE-EXD OF THE GREAT YfiKKES 40-INCH REFRACTOR. 



many lines in the blue. The spectrum was, in fact, crowded with 
dark lines. 

I found some difficulty in estimating the exact moment of second 
contact the beginning oE totality but the ordinary spectrum 
suddenly seemed to vanish. I cannot say that I definitely saw 
the flash spectrum. I now looked at the corona without the binocular. 



160 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 

There was a bright silvery ring round the dark moon, and, outside 
this ring, were irregular extensions of fainter light the streamers. 
To me these were of a colour inclined to steely blue. 

Eesuming observations with the binocular the eclipse being 
now total I saw a faint general spectrum crossed by four bright 
arcs, the concavity of which was now directed towards the left 
upper quadrant. 

These arcs corresponded apparently to C of hydrogen, D 3 of 
helium, to coronium, and to F of hydrogen. They were coloured 
red, yellow, green, and bluish green, respectively. On the lower 
part of the red C arc appeared a brilliant star-like point of red 
light, due to a prominence. I do not clearly remember whether a 
similar point appeared on any of the other arcs, but I think that 
there was a yellow star on the helium arc. I did not notice any 
prominences by direct vision. Third contact the close of totality 
was unmistakably indicated by a very narrow, but brilliant, strip of the 
ordinary solar spectrum shooting centrally lengthwise through the 
dim coronal spectrum. It is impossible to give any adequate idea 
of the exquisite beauty of the foregoing phenomena. They were 
truly a poem in colour. 

Mr. O'CALLAGHAN. I used an opera-glass with a Thorp 
diffraction grating in one of the eyepieces. The length of the 
spectrum was parallel to the moon's movement, with the red 
end towards the left. As second contact approached, I saw a few 
of the curved dark lines. Just at second contact the narrowed 
spectrum split up into lines of light along its length, and then, as 
it faded, four bright arcs appeared, one in the green, one on the 
blue side of the green, and two on the red side of it. These arcs 
seemed all nearly equally persistent, and 1 watched them for 
probably twenty-five seconds. 

Before mid-totality, I left the spectroscope, my sight much 
weakened by previous exposure to sunlight. Looking now 
through a telescope (a small refractor 1| inch) I did not see the 
streamers of the corona (perhaps because the field of view was 
narrow), but, before direct sunlight re-appeared, I distinguished 
many bright prominences on the S.W. limb, near the position of 
third contact. 

[It may be of interest to state that Mr. O'Callaghan was the 
only member of the Navalmoral party who had previously seen a 
total solar eclipse, he being fortunate enough to witness the Indian 
one of 22nd January, 1898. C. T. W.] 

Colonel A. BUBTON-BKOWN, R.A. (Algiers, Cemetery Hill). I 
reserved to myself three instruments: (a) A camera obscura, 
formed by one of the telescopes equatorially mounted, with eyepiece, 
projecting an image of the sun on to the ground glass, diameter 
of image about 2^ inches on a 9-inch field, so that all present might 
note the progress of the eclipse till totality. During totality 
I hoped to get an enlarged picture of the corona with this instru- 
ment, but I regret to say it was imperfect, owing to vibration 
during exposure. (I) A tube containing a photographic lens, with 



THE PRISMATIC OPERA-GLASS. 



161 



a negative lens for enlarging, associated with a deep green positive 
lens and spectroscopic prisms, with which I hoped to get more 
prominently the corouium line. () A powerful binocular, to one 
object glass of which one of Thorp's grating prisms was fitted. 

As the crescent of the sun slowly diminished, many of the 
party, as well as myself, saw in the camera obscura most perfectly 
the appearance of " Baily's Beads," which seemed to linger for an 
unusual time. I then raised my binocular, in which I also saw 
them for a second, but to be immediately followed by the most 
marked reversal of the black lines in the spectrum it has ever 




THE HORSE-SHOE FALLS, NIAGAEA. 



baen niy good fortune to witness. The coloured lines did not 
appear at once, but seemed to run along the field of view as the 
spectrum lighted up, and remained in the field what appeared to 
be three or four seconds, so that, in my mind, there is no necessity 
to go to the edge of the shadow to prolong them. I consider this 
grating of Mr. Thomas Thorp a great success. At the moment of 
reversal I called time, and the camera and spectroscopic and eye 
observers commenced operations 4h. 17m. 25s. I was not able to 
detect with any certainty the 1474 line on the corona in any part, 
or on the streamers. The structure of the coronal streamers was 
marked in the instrument "a," but no satisfactory photograph 
was obtained, and, owing also to an accident to the worker of " b " 
with the green lens, the result is not altogether satisfactory. 

M 



162 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1900. 

Mr. W. B. GIBBS (Ovar). I was observing with a Zeiss 
prismatic binocular, the object glasses of which were of one- inch 
aperture. Over one of these Mr. Hilger had fitted for me a 
prismatic photographic grating of 14,500 lines to the inch. At 
the eye end of the other tube, to protect my eye from the sunlight, 
I was using a coloured solar wedge belonging to a larger telescope. 
The instrument was mounted on a tripod stand. 

At twelve minutes before totality the light from the thin solar 
crescent was still so strong that a very dark portion of the wedge 
had to be used, and I could not look into the spectroscope tube 
without protection to the eye. At about three minutes before 
totality I could use the spectroscope tube without any dark glass, 
and I noticed a crescent-like disposition of the colours. This soon 
changed into an ordinary solar spectrum, with the principal 
Fraunhofer lines plainly visible and clearly defined, but, of course, 
curved. These then became bright lines, and, whilst scrutinizing 
them, a smaller spectrum appeared in the middle composed of 
many more bright lines, which quickly disappeared, leaving only 
the longer bright arcs. I specially noticed that the outer or 
serrated edge of these bright arcs was not nearly equal in height 
to the inner corona as seen through the other tube of the instru- 
ment, and that there was no trace of any faint extension of the 
matter giving rise to the green line into the outer or fainter portion 
of the corona. The serrated edge seemed to have a sharp and 
definite outline, and did not fade away gradually. 

At the end of totality the small interior bright line spectrum 
appeared for a few seconds. 

Mr. SYDNEY EVEESHED (Algiers, Cape Matifou). I am afraid 
my observations will not be of much value, because I went to 
Algiers rather more from motives of curiosity than with the inten- 
tion of observing any particular phenomenon, but I took with me 
a grating attached to one object-glass of a field-glass by Goertz, 
as I had a great curiosity to see the " Flash " spectrum, and as 
the flash spectrum gives the beginning and end of totality very 
exactly, I was asked by those of the party who had cameras to 
give them these times. The times taken from me were noted by 
Mr. Dickson, and they made the time of totality 67'5 seconds. This 
observation depends on two persons, so that it cannot be expected 
to be particularly accurate. So far as my observations went 
I found it quite easy to determine the exact instant when 
totality began, because the disappearance of the last streaks of 
the ordinary solar spectrum is so gradual that the mind is prepared 
for the instant at which they disappear entirely. I am quite 
accustomed to accurate time observations, and although I had 
never previously seen a total eclipse I feel sure that the time I gave 
was within one-tenth of a second. The end of totality was not so 
easily noted ; the total duration of totality not being known 
exactly before hand, the re-appearance of the flash spectrum takes 
one by surprise, and it is on that account more difficult to give the 
instant of re-appearance of the continuous spectrum with the same 



THE PRISMATIC OPERA-GLASS. 163 

accuracy as the determination of its disappearance. I think I 
may have been as much as 0'25 seconds late in giving the 
re-appearance of the spectrum. The errors of observations at the 
beginning and end of totality are of the same sense, so that to 
some extent they cancel each other. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE SHADOW BANDS* 

ONE of the most interesting of the attendant phenomena of a 
total eclipse of the sun is that of the " Shadow Bands." These 
are strange pulsations of alternate light and shade which move 
swiftly, though with wavering motion, across the landscape 
at the beginning and end of totality. One of the earliest obser- 
vations; of them recorded was in the annular eclipse of 1820, 
when Goldschmidt remarked them some three or four minutes 
before the moon had completely passed on to the sun's disk. A 
completely total eclipse therefore is not necessiary for their pro>- 
duction; indeed, in the eclipse of 1870, December 22, Signer Sayar- 
Moleti remarked them in Messina, which was just outside the 
zone of totality. In appearance they resemble the ripples of light 
and shade reflected from moving water. Thus, in " The Indian 
Eclipse, 1898," the following similes are used: "If the sun's 
rays reflected from the waves of a, calm sea pass through the 
glass of a port-hole window r,nd fall upon the farther wall of a 
cabin, the faint flickering shadows will, in some degree at least, 
resemble these mysterious shadow bands." " Only," cautions 
another observer, " the shadow bands were far less brilliant, 
smaller, more regular, and much less beautiful, but the tremulous 
rippling movement was similar." The same observer gives as 
her own description: "As for the shadow bands, I should 
rather call them shadow ripples. They reminded me of the 
figures I have seen while bathing in the Channel Islands, when 
the image or shadow of the ripples on the surface of the clear 
water dances on the shingly bottom below." 

In order to secure, a,s far as possible, uniformity of plan 
amongst the different expeditions going out to the recent 
eclipse, I prepared a number of directions for the guidance of 
observers, with a code of questions for them to answer, based 
upon my experiences in 1898, at Buxar, in India, and I havs 
been favoured with the following reports of the results 
obtained : 

ELCHE. A careful watch for shadow bands was kept by Mr. 
Johnson, Mr. E. C. Willis, and myself on the roof of a house at 
Elche, and for the purpose two sheets, marked with black bands 

* By Mr. E. W. JOHNSON. 
164 



THE SHADOW BANDS. 165 

exactly one foot apart, were provided, one of which was fixed 
on a wall, and the other was laid flat on the roof. 

The first trace of the shadow bands was seen by Mr. Johnson 
4J minutes before totality, when they were very faint, but they 
rapidly increased in density, and were almost at once well 
defined. 

About the same time as the first appearance of the shadows 
there was a remarkable change in the light; a deep blue shade 
seemed to come over everything, as if the red and yellow rays 
were withdrawn, and the darkness increased very rapidly. 

The shadows did not appear as " bands " at all, but as 
irregular ripples which merged one in the other. A few seconds 
after their first appearance one batch rushed over the sheet at 
an indescribable speed, but immediately afterwards they came 
uniformly and very much slower. 

The direction before and after totality was precisely the same, 
from S.S.E. to N.N.W., the wind being from S.S.E. There was 
very little breeze what there was came in light puffs or gusts. 

The appearance of the shadows after totality was exactly 
the same as before, but they were not seen for more than two 
minutes, and they became very faint a few seconds before their 
final disappearance. 

None were visible during totality. (JESSIE McRAE.) 

ELCHE. Observations of shadow bands at Elche were made 
on a wall facing almost due west. The shadows, first seen 
six minutes before totality, became somewhat more distinct as 
totality approached, and they were again seen upon the return 
of sunlight. They appeared to be made up of innumerable 
ripples, which were oval in shape, about ten inches long and a 
quarter that in width. All of them were parallel, and each one 
was partly merged in those surrounding it. The shadows were 
moving at about seven miles an hour, in a direction parallel to 
the shorter axes of the ripples. The line of motion was towards 
the north end of the wall and downward, making an angle of about 
40 with the horizontal. There was also an irregular merging 
and dissolving movement of the various ripples into each other. 
As a result of this, new ones were continually being formed 
whilst the old ones were lost sight of. It was, in fact, impossible 
to follow any of them for more than a few inches. This merging 
movement was exceedingly rapid, and perhaps chiefly in a 
direction parallel to the general motion. 

An attempt to photograph the shadows was unfortunately 
frustrated by the non-arrival of a shutter ordered for the 
purpose. The opinion, however, was formed that they were a 
phenomenon which it would have been quite possible to photo- 
graph with the aid of suitable apparatus. (E. C. WILLIS.) 

ELCHE. For the observations of the shadow bands at Elche 
I was seated on a corn-threshing floor, perfectly level, and 
commanding a large view of country. About three minutes 



166 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1900. 



before totality I saw the bands. They were regular, with the 
appearance of sinuous curves ; they were not clearly denned, but 
greyish and faint on the ground. However, their intensity was 
sufficient to attract the attention of two Spanish policemen who 
were on my left. The width of the bands was two inches, the 
distance apart being from one foot to one and a quarter. Their 
motion, uniform, it seemed, was as quick as a man walking. 
At first the motion was maintaining precisely the same direction, 
east to west, but one minute before totality I saw a remarkable 
phenomenon, not observed before, I believe. Besides the first 
system already described, there was suddenly a second system 
of bands, showing the same general appearance, but the motion 




Mr. E. W. JOHNSON AT WORK. 

of which was distinctly in the opposite direction, viz., from 
west to east. I am satisfied myself of the reality of the thing, 
which was borne witness to after totality by several neighbouring 
persons. 

I must say that the wind, moderate in force, was blowing 
during all the eclipse from the same direction, E.S.E. 

(M. MOVE.) 

ALGIERS (HOTEL DE LA EEGENCE). The apparatus which my 
sister (Mrs. Arthur Brook) and I had at Algiers for making 
observations of shadow bands was simply a white sheet, 
12 ft. x 9 ft. in area, which we laid flat on the red-tiled roof of 
the hotel, and two black rods, six feet long, to place parallel 



THE SHADOW BANDS. 167 

to the bands before and after totality, so as to enable us to 
determine the direction of motion. We had also sewed on the 
middle of the sheet two concentric circles of black tape, two feet 
and four feet in diameter respectively, for the purpose of viewing 
the bands tangentially to the circles from whatever point of the 
compass they might happen to come; we hoped in this way to 
count the number of bands in a given distance, but were dis- 
appointed owing to the character of the shadows. 

The word " bands " is not at all applicable to what we saw ; 
we spent at least four minutes after totality in critically 
examining the structure of the shadows, and we came to the 
conclusion that there was no real linear arrangement, much less 
single bands of definite breadth stretching across the sheet; 
ripples raised on water by a light breeze represent best what 
may be termed the structure of the shadows; they all move in 
the same direction, each ripple element is linear in character 
but retains its individuality only for a moment, appears to 
dissolve away and others take its place. We chanced some days 
afterwards to see a very common occurrence which closely re- 
sembles the shadows in appearance, though much coarser and 
less delicate in grain, so to speak; a large field of grass about 
half a mile off, ready for the scythe, blowing across it a 
moderately strong wind, causing lights and shades to traverse 
the tops of the grass, all in one direction, but no definite portion 
of light or shade remaining the same for more than a moment; 
they were constantly altering in shape, disappearing, and fresh 
ones appearing. 

The direction in which the whole phenomenon was moving 
was perfectly plain, and very easy to be distinguished, 
namely, from 30 or thereabouts west of north to 30 east of 
south both before and after totality, though I think after 
totality the ripples came slightly more from the west. Once 
after totality I watched the direction of motion recede consider- 
ably to the west, but only for a short time, say 15 seconds or 
so. The pace was quite slow enough to have allowed of their 
being counted, if they could have been individualized, and I 
estimated the speed at 1J yards a second. 

Further, my sister alone saw at the end of totality what she 
describes in a note below as very dark, oblong patches on a 
grey ground; this was quite a separate phenomenon from the 
ripples already mentioned, and lasted only a few seconds. The 
general direction of the wind during the eclipse was north, 
very light. 

It seems to be generally accepted that these faint grey shadows 
are due to atmospheric irregularities, and I think there can be 
hardly any doubt of this; at the same time it must not be 
assumed that these atmospheric irregularities are necessarily 
near the earth's surface ; they may be at any height up to at any 
rate the level of the highest clouds, say 25,000 feet. In a book 
called " Cloudland," by the late Mr. Clement Ley (pages 12, 53, 
and others), there are suggestions made with reference to the 



168 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, I QOO. 

formation of certain kinds of clouds which may be found to 
have some bearing on the origin of these shadows. 

He imagines two layers of air, differing in velocity and tem- 
perature and humidity, in contact with each other ; owing to 
the difference of velocity friction will arise at the contact surface 
which will cause ripples and waves ; where a ripple of the warmer 
and moister current is forced up into the cooler current, a small 
cloudlet will appear owing to condensation, while the spaces 
between, where the cooler current is mingled with the warmer 
will remain clear, thfus producing dappled or wavy clouds 
which he calls Cirro-macula or Stratus-maculosus, according to 
the height above the earth's surface. (These are the same forms 
of cloud which Howard calls Cirro-cumulus.) 

Now if we imagine this process to be going on, but of insuffi- 
cient intensity to result in actual clouds, we shall have an 
irregular or rippled plane of contact between two strata of air 
of different density, at which the light coming from a thin strip 
of the uncovered sun will be unequally refracted, causing 
variations in the amount of light falling on any surface in a 
direct line with the sun and the two strata of air; further, the 
air ripples, and therefore the shadows, will in general move in 
the direction in which the faster of the two currents is moving, 
just as ripples on water move in the direction of the breeze 
producing them. Where, however, the two currents are moving 
in directions inclined to one another, the ripples would move 
in some direction intermediate between the two, and thus the 
actual direction of the wind either at the earth's surface or in 
the higher atmospheric strata may have no direct relation to 
the movement of the shadow ripples at an eclipse. May not 
also a similar cause account for the wavy or pulsating shadows 
seen crossing a star disc put much out of focus, even on a very 
clear night where there are no visible clouds, but much bad 
seeing? (C. L. BROOK.) 



NOTE BY MRS. ARTHUR BROOK ON THE " SHADOW PATCHES. "- 
Immediately after Miss Maunder gave the word " Stop," which 
denoted that 60 seconds of totality were past, I dropped 
my glasses and looked at the sheet. Instead of being white the 
sheet, owing to the absence of sunlight, was of a dull grey hue. 
The surface appeared to be covered with dark blotches of 
shadow, and these were apparently in a state of violent agitation ; 
the patches of dark shadow were dancing about and coursing 
one another rapidly over the grey ground. These shadows could 
not be said to be in definite wavy lines, nor do any of the pictures 
of shadow bands represent the appearance I saw. The patches 
seemed to be irregular ovals in shape, about 9 inches by 
6 inches, and to be arranged in rows in the direction from N.E. to 
S.W. (The actual direction as shown by the position of the 
black rod was from 42 east of north, to 42 west of south.) 
The rows themselves appeared to be passing slowly from N.W. 



THE SHADOW BANDS. 



169 



to S.E., while at the same time the patches chased one another 
along the rows much more rapidly, the whole effect being of a 
rapid undulating motion from N.E. to S.W., with a slow motion 
from N.W. to S.E. 

This appearance lasted seven or eight seconds, jand dis- 
appeared instantaneously, giving place to the faint, flickering 




SHADOW PATCHES OBSERVED AT ALGIERS, BY MRS. ARTHUR BROOK. 

This phenomenon lasted about 7 or 8 seconds about the end of totality. 
The patches vanished suddenly, leaving on the sheet the ordinary shadow ripples, 
which were observed for some minutes before and after totality. 

shadows upon a white ground, which my brother and I saw 
both before and after totality. 

As I continued to observe the sheet before totality up to, 
or nearly up to, the moment Mr. Maunder gave the word " Go," 
that is nearly up to the commencement of totality, I think these 
shadow patches were not visible before. (RUTH MARY BROOK.) 



170 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

ALGERIA (CAPE MATIFOU). The only one of our party who 
observed the shadow bands was Mrs. Hassall, and she saw them 
both before and after totality. It is doubtful whether sufficient 
points were noted to make the observations valuable, but it 
may happen that there is no other record of the shadows 
being seen on a vertical plane whose orientation was exactly 
similar to that of the white wall which served as a background 
for Mrs. Hassall's observations. 

The azimuth of the wall was 114, or, in other words, a line 
drawn at right angles to the wall pointed 24 west of south, 
and the shadow bands were seen about 12 inches broad and the 
same distance apart, travelling horizontally from the eastern to 
the western end, in a direction at right angles to their length. 

Mrs. Hassall describes them as uniform and almost straight, 
and from her description I judged the velocity to be about eight 
miles per hour. 

During the eclipse the air was quite calm, with occasional 
light gusts of wind which never attained a> velocity of more than 
ten miles per hour. 

One or two of our party saw the moon's shadow coming over 
the sea, but not with that distinctness which we had been led 
to expect. (H. KRAUSS NIELD.) 

MANZANARES. Shadow bands were observed on two large 
sheets spread side by side upon the fairly even pavement of 
the old Moorish tower kindly lent to us for observations, and 
roughly oriented to the points of the compass. A foot width 
was marked off as a gauge by two parallel straps. The direction 
of the waves was 1 indicated, when observed, by two other straps, 
whose position was accurately noted, at leisure, after totality. 

The bands were not seen until within two minutes of totality. 
They then travelled at six or seven miles an hour, twenty were 
counted in two> seconds, they moved in nearly straight, parallel 
and equidistant lines, with a quivering motion; the bands were 
about three inches wide, and the light intervals between them 
also about three inches wide. 

The direction of motion was from N. 64 E. to S. 64 W. 
(true), and the bands lay at right angles to the direction of 
their motion. 

About twenty seconds before totality Captain Carpenter, who 
had turned round to reach the straps wherewith to mark the 
direction of motion, was surprised when again turning towards 
the sheet to observe that the direction of motion had changed to 
S. 26 E. that is, at right angles. Almost at once after this the 
bands ceased to be visible. All agreed to the position of the straps 
as placed by Captain Carpenter, but to Mr. Gare and myself, 
who had not moved and saw no change, they indicated the waves 
themselves, whereas to Captain Carpenter they indicated the 
direction of motion. Could there be an alternating vibration in 
two opposed directions, without motion of translation, like the 
vibration of a sounding bell? 



THE SHADOW BANDS. 171 

Immediately before the shadow bands came, a peculiar narrow 
well-defined black shadow, in shape like a bough of a tree, with 
a backward projection, as of a broken fork, about the middle, 
and roughly concave in the direction of its motion, moved 
across the sheet nearly east to west, which is a little more west 
than the direction in which the shadow bands moved imme- 
diately afterwards. We thought it likely to be the shadow of 
a bird, but did not look up as the shadow bands were appearing. 
Senor Ventosa, of the Madrid Observatory, points out that the 
thin slice of sunlight at this time would be likely to give a 
narrow, well-defined shadow. 

We did not watch for shadow bands after totality. 

(H. KEATLEY MOORE.) 

PLASENCIA. At Plasencia observations were made by means 
of four sticks, about five feet in length, which were laid on a 
large white cloth spread upon the ground. Two of the sticks 
indicated respectively the position and direction of motion of 
the bands before totality ; the remaining two indicated the same 
particulars after totality. 

Mr. Geoghegan, who kindly undertook to look for the bands, 
saw nothing of them until two minutes before totality. He was 
then able to see them distinctly enough to place the sticks in 
position. Similarly after totality, the bands were visible for 
about two minutes. 

By means of a compass I found that before totality the 
direction in which the bands lay was about 10 north of east, 
and the direction of motion was south-east by south. After 
totality the direction in which the bands lay was north-east, and 
the direction of motion was south-east. All these bearings are 
magnetic. The declination of the needle for the station is 
15 west. 

The wind was north, light before totality, freshening to 
moderate afterwards. (A. M. W. DOWNING.) 

PLASENCIA. I find it impossible to answer categorically, as 
suggested, the questions on shadow bands, as the shadows did 
not look to me at all like " bands," but resembled the undefined 
nature of the shadow (or whatever it may be called) of a wave 
in shallow water running over sand or some light coloured 
bottom. 

The line of the crest of the waves seemed to be a wavy line 
with, I estimated, between five and six inches pitch (i.e., from 
crest to crest) and an inch height of wave. 

The crest of the waves was nearly in a straight line, and the 
distance between each wave was about three inches; the speed 
of progression I estimated at about one foot per second, and 
the waves did not, I think, come in batches, but uniformly. 
The time the shadows were visible seemed about two minutes 
before totality, and an equal time after. 



172 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 

I may remark that the sheet was not at all flat, as it was laid 
upon grass, and the ground was not level. I did not measure 
the shadows, which from their nature would have been difficult, 
and I could only estimate the distances. (S. GEOGHEGAN.) 

NAVALMORAL. At Navalmoral a white sheet was laid on the 
ground, but no shadow bands were observed by Mr. Buckley or 
by Mr. Jackson Smith, who undertook to watch for them. The 
Rev. C. J. Steward, observing another white sheet on higher 
ground, was also unsuccessful. 

Shadow bands appear to be due to disturbances in the re- 
fractive power of the air brought about by alterations in tem- 
perature and density. We may perhaps expect such changes to 
be accompanied by sensible air movement or wind. At Naval- 
moral there was during totality complete calm. Upon optical 
principles the bands will be clearly denned only when the solar 
crescent is very narrow. (C. T. WHITMELL.) 

ALGIERS (HOTEL CONTINENTAL). With regard to the shadow 
bands or patches, they came on with a kind of rippling move- 
ment from a north-westerly direction, at intervals some five 
minutes before totality ; the general direction in which they 
seemed to lie being from about N.E. to S.W. As the eclipse 
advanced the shadow bands appeared to swerve round towards 
the south, and some three minutes after totality they were 
observed to be travelling away towards the west, i.e., they 
appeared to be moving in an almost opposite direction after 
totality to that in which they were moving before totality, 
although the general direction or parallelism of the bands or 
patches themselves remained much the same after the eclipse as 
before, viz., about N.E. to S.W. 

The general impression produced upon my mind by them 
was that they are a purely atmospheric effect, rendered visible 
by the reduced light area at the time, much in a similar way 
as an image is focussed through the slit of a spectroscope. It is 
noticeable also that these bands or patches appear at a time 
when presumably the air currents are rendered more active by 
decrease of temperature as the eclipse advances, and by subse- 
quent increase of temperature as the sunlight returns. The 
bands or patches proceeded rapidly with an undulatory motion, 
and owing to their faintness and rapidity, anything like accurate 
counting or timing seemed impossible. (RICHARD F. ROBERTS.) 

ESTARREJA. I had previously arranged a large sheet, and 
also had the side of a white house to observe the bands upon. 
Just before totality perhaps a minute I arranged my camera 
for the side of the house, and sat with my back to the sun 
watching. I cannot tell how long before Baily's Beads the 
shadow bands appeared, but it must have been only a very few 



THE SHADOW BANDS. 



173 



seconds. At first I detected them very faintly, but they steadily 
and rapidly increased in intensity, and I took a snapshot. . . . 
To me when I first detected them they did not appear as bands, 
but exactly as the Portuguese book on the eclipse described 
them reflection from rippling water under a bridge but they 
soon assumed the appearance of definite bands, wavy lines, with 
dark blotches of shadow upon them, and moving very rapidly 
about eight inches apart, as near as I can guess from my right 
lower corner to my upper left, at an angle of 45. As I had my 
back to the sun they would move almost at right angles to the 
path of the moon over the sun's disc. The rate at which they 




ABOVE THE FALLS, XIAGAKA. 



moved I can liken to standing in a railway station, and seeing a 
train pass through at the rate of about thirty miles an hour. I 
stood about eight yards from the white wall. (J. N. MARSDEN.) 

ALGIERS (CEMETERY HILL). The shadow bands were generally 
observed about six inches or so apart, the movement being 
apparently about at right angles to their length. 

(Col. A. BURTON BROWN, R.A.) 

Miss EDITH MAUNDER (ALGIERS, HOTEL DE LA REGENCE), 
who was acting as timekeeper, and who was seated at a table 
facing the eclipse, saw the shadow bands moving over the flat 



174 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

roof, and passing over herself and the table before her, and 
seemed to feel them as if they were a slight fluttering current of 
air. 

Miss IRENE MAUNDER, at the same station, saw the bands just 
before second contact, moving over the ground from N.W. 
to S.E. 

From the reports which have come to hand from various ob- 
servers it would seem that the shadow bands at this eclipse 
varied considerably at different places, and the details given 
bear out the idea that they are influenced to a very great extent 
by the wind. 

My own observations, in which I was assisted by Miss 
Jessie McKae and Mr. E. C. Willis, being made on a high roof 
at Elche, exposed to every breath of wind, correspond very 
closely to those of Mr. Brook and his sister, Mrs. Arthur Brook, 
which were made on the roof of the Hotel de la Kegence, at 
Algiers, while Professor Moye, who was observing on a corn- 
threshing floor at Elche, presumably sheltered from the wind, 
saw the bands in quite a different form. To us on the roof at 
Elche they appeared, not as bands at all but as ripples, which 
travelled at a moderate speed but changed continually in form, 
one ripple merging into another. 

They were well denned, but owing to their ever changing 
form no accurate estimate could be made of their width, though 
it did not seem ever to exceed two inches, while the light spaces 
were often more than twice that width. The real shadow of 
the moon was sweeping across Spain from slightly north of west 
to a little south of east, but the direction of the shadows was 
from S.S.E. to N.N.W., the wind blowing faintly from S.S.E., 
and from the comparatively slow movement of the shadows and 
their broken appearance, the supposition is that their normal 
direction would have been from the north-west, but they were 
met and forced back by the wind. 

Professor Moye reports seeing regular curved bands of two 
inches in width and about a foot apart, which travelled from 
east to west ; and that one minute before totality another system 
of bands was visible, showing the same appearance but travel- 
ling in exactly the opposite direction, namely, from west to 
east. It would seem that the second system of bands might be 
due to absence of wind, since it so often happens that at 
totality there is a complete calm. Keports of this perfect still- 
ness have been received from no less than three observing 
stations at the recent eclipse. 

Mrs. Brook's observations of dark patches immediately before 
the return of sunlight after totality, are of quite a new character, 
and no reports of their appearance have been received from any 
other observers, though no doubt this phenomenon is closely 
connected with the shadow bands or ripples. Never having 



THE SHADOW BANDS. 



175 



been observed before it is impossible to form any definite 
opinion on the subject, as for this comparison is needed, but it 
may be that this is the climax of the density of the shadows, 
and if so they might be visible for the first few seconds of 




GATE OF THE WINDS, NIAGARA. 



totality, immediately after the withdrawal of the actual rays of 
the sun, as well as for a few seconds before the end of totality. 
In any case they should be most carefully looked for at future 
eclipses. 

When I first observed the shadow bands at Buxar, in January, 
1898 3 the wind, what little there was, travelled in the same 



176 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

direction as the moon's shadow, and there were produced clearly 
denned parallel bands, which on that occasion were estimated 
at a speed of from 8 to 12 miles an. hour. Based upon the obser- 
vations then made, some questions and hints were drawn up with 
a view to assisting observers at the late eclipse, but owing to 
the different appearance of the shadows it has been hardly 
possible in some cases to answer the questions as they stand. 
Below will be found tabulated the questions with answers 
received from five different observing parties. From these it 
would appear that conditions varied very much, ,and in one 
other instance, namely, at Navalmoral, Mr. C. T. Whitmell 
reports that notwithstanding a special look out being kept by 
three observers, no shadow bands were seen at all. Careful 
watch for the approach of the moon's shadow was kept at Elche 
by Mr. J. H. Willis, who undertook all the meteorological 
observations, but it was imperceptible, neither was anything 
seen of its departure. 

The code of questions submitted to the several observers was 
as follows. Their answers are given in tabular form. 

QUESTIONS. 

1. How long before totality did the bands appear? 

2. What number of bands were visible say in ten seconds? ' 

3. What was the direction of motion? 

4. Were they inclined to the direction of motion? 

5. What was the direction and force of the wind? 

6. Did they come uniformly or in batches? 

7. What was their speed ? 

8. What was the width of the bands? 

9. What was the distance apart of the bands? 

10. Were they very faint, or clearly denned? 

11. Was their direction after totality the same as before? 

12. How long after were they visible? 

13. Did you see any bands during totality? 

E. W. JOHNSON. 



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CHAPTER XVI. 
BAILTS BEADS. 

THE earliest notice which we have of this phenomenon appears to be 
due to Halley, afterwards second Astronomer Royal. In his observa- 
tion of the total eclipse of 1 71 5, the only total eclipse of the sun that has 
ever been visible from Greenwich Observatory, he notes "about two 
minutes before the total immersion, the remaining part of the sun 
was reduced to a very fine horn, whose extremities seemed to lose 
their acuteness, and to become round like stars ; and, for the space 
of about a quarter of a minute, a small piece of the southern horn 
of the eclipse seemed to be cut off from the rest by a good interval 
and appeared like an oblong star rounded at both ends." But they 
have become familiar to all students of astroromical literature since 
the year 1836, when Francis Baily, observing the annular eclipse of 
May 15th, of that year, was greatly struck with their appearance, 
and gave so full and striking an account of them, that they have 
always been looked for since, and have borne the name of the 
man who first made them generally well known. His account is as 
follows : 

" When the cusps of the sun were about 40 asunder, a row of lucid 
points, like a string of bright beads, irregular in siZe and distance from each 
other, suddenly formed round that part of the circumference of the moon 
that was about to enter, or which might be considered as having just entered, 
on the sun's disc. Its formation indeed was so rapid, that it presented the 
appearance of having been caused by the ignition of a fine train of gunpowder. 
This I intended to note as the correct time of the formation of the annulus, 
expecting every moment to see the thread of light completed round the 
moon, and attributing this serrated appearance of the moon's limb (as others 
have done before me) to the lunar mountains, although the remaining 
portion of the moon's circumference was comparatively smooth and circular 
as seen through the telescope. My surprise, however, was great on finding 
that these luminous points increased in magnitude, some of the contiguous 
ones appearing to run into each other like drops of water; for the rapidity of 
the change was so great, and the singularity of the appearance so fascinating 
and attractive, that the mind was for the moment distracted, and lost in the 
contemplation of the scene, so as to be unable to attend to every minute 

occurrence I cannot describe these phenomena (or rather this 

phenomenon, for it was one continuous appearance) more correctly than by 
supposing, for the moment, that the edge was formed of some dark glutinous 
substance, which by its tenacity adhered to certain points of the sun's limb, 
and by the motion of the moon was thus drawn out into long threads, which 
suddenly broke and wholly disappeared. After the formation of the 
annulus' thus described, the moon preserved its usual circular outline during 
its progress across the sun's disc, till its opposite limb again approached the 
border of the sun, and the annulus was about to be dissolved, when all at 

178 



BAILY S BEADS. 



179 



once (the limb of the moon being some distance from the edge of the sun) a 
number of long, black, thick, parallel lines, exactly similar in appearance 
to the former ones above mentioned, suddenly darted forward from the moon 
and joined the two limbs as before, and the same phenomenon was thus 
repeated, but in an inverse order. For, as the dark lines got shorter, the 
intervening bright parts assumed a more circular and irregular shape, and 
at length terminated in a fine curved line of bright beads (as at the com- 
mencement), till they ultimately vanished and the annulus consequently 
became Avholly dissolved." 

This description can scarcely be improved upon, but it should be 
noted that in an annular eclipse as was that of 1886, the two phases 
of the phenomenon occur in the reverse order to that seen in a total 
eclipse. Iii other words, it is at second contact, at the beginning of 




REV. C. D. P. DAVIES, HOTEL DE LA REGEXCE, ALGIERS. 

totality, when but a thin arch of sunlight still remains, that the long, 
black, thick, parallel lines suddenly dart forward from the moon, 
and reach across to the limb of the sun, thus breaking up the thin 
bright arch into a row of beads. Whilst it is at the third contact, 
the end of totality, that the " row of lucid points like a string of 
bright beads " form around that part of the circumference of the 
moon that is about to enter upon the sun's disc. 

In this Eclipse of 1900 several of the members of our various 
parties gave considerable attention to Baily's Beads, two of them, 
Mr. Crommelin and Mr. Chambers, by no means according in 
their explanation of the causes to which the phenomenon should 
be ascribed. 

Mr. CROMMELIN (Algiers, Hotel de la Regence). The progress 
of the eclipse was observed by projection on a sheet of cardboard 

N2 



180 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

to avoid fatiguing the eye. About twenty seconds before totality 
Baily's Beads began to form. The appearance was as of the 
sudden leaping outwards of dark projections from the moon 
across the light crescent. They were first seen near the cusps, and 
gradually spread, so that at the ten seconds signal the whole 
crescent was thus broken up. 

The beads had the appearance of absolutely straight perfectly 
black cuts out of the bright crescent ; but it seems quite clear that 
they are simply caused by the lunar mountains, and that their 
peculiar aspect is due to the widening of the solar crescent through 
irradiation. Thus, nineteen seconds before totality, the width of the 
crescent in the middle was 8", tapering off to nothing at the cusps. 
Now, on the "scale of the projection on the cardboard, about four 
inches to the sun's diameter, this would be equivalent to Jg- of an 
inch at the widest part ; but owing to irradiation it gave one the 
impression of being quite T V of an inch, and even near the cusps it 
seemed to have a very sensible width. The beads in the crescent, 
due to the lunar mountains, would necessarily undergo a like 
seeming magnification, and hence would be produced those curious 
appearances of broad, black, straight bands. But for irradiation 
they would have appeared in their true form as serrated and 
irregular mountain peaks. It is a somewhat similar phenomenon 
to the " Black Drop " in transits of Venus. 



Mr. Gr. F. CHAMBERS (Ovar). I took with me a 2i-in. 
refractor, mounted on a tripod stand, and provided with a wedge 
solar eye-piece of neutral tint glass, made for the occasion by Mr. 
3. H. Steward. Not having previously seen any total solar eclipse, 
I studied carefully the warnings of observers with previous 
experience against undertaking too much, and I decided to confine 
my attention to (1) visual observation of Baily's Beads ; (2) the 
Red Flames ; (3) the outline of the outer Corona ; (4) the passage 
of the Eclipse Shadow ; (5) the Shadow Bands ; and (6) the 
visibility of neighbouring stars. 

My observations of the last three items may be said to have 
failed. Besides Mercury and Venus, I only saw two or three stars 
at the most, and I did not see either the passage of the Eclipse 
Shadow or any Shadow Bands. On the other hand, I made a 
successful pencil sketch of the outer corona ; saw a very beautiful 
and extensive display of prominences in the form of carmine 
coloured light extending through 80 or 90 around the sun's 
circumference, and the " Baily's Beads." 

As regards the outer corona and its extensioiis, I would only 
remark that the outlines were fairly well defined, but, owing to the 
general darkness of the sky being far less than I expected, there 
was not the contrast of light between the corona and the sky 
which I had anticipated. 

As regards the prominences, I would say that I did not notice 
any particular development of them in jets or outbursts outwards ; 
the display of carmine colour was truly magnificent, but the outline 



BAILY'S BEADS. 



181 



seemed of fairly even width through the whole extent, which, as'I 
have said, was something less than 90 of arc. 

I look upon my observations of " Baily's Beads" as the most 




THE ALCAXAH, SKVILLE. 

successful feature of my day's work. I saw them sharp and clear, 
both at the beginning and at the end of the total phase ; and I feel 
firmly convinced that they are not due, as commonly supposed, to 



182 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 

the serrated character of the moon's limb. I agree very much 
with Mr. Lewis Swift's remarks, made in connection with the 
American Eclipse of July 29, 1878 : 

" The beads (which are luminous, and thus unlike the ' Black Drop ') 
began to form from each end simultaneously, and in less than a half second 
were completed. They were nearly square, and increased in size from each 
end of the crescent to the centre, which was the largest in exact 
mathematical ratio. So symmetrical were they that if half of them had 
been superimposed on the other half they would have agreed in number, 
curvature, shape, and distance. They were visible but a short time say 
two or three seconds when, giving a few pulsating tremors, they vanished 
altogether. When I take into consideration the exact uniformity of their 
formation as to size, shape, &e., I cannot subscribe to the dogma that they 
are only the sun's light shining through the interstices of the lunar 
mountains. In this case part of the moon's contour, where they were 
formed, was smooth, while the other was exceedingly rough, yet the beads 
were the same in both localities ; and those formed at the beginning are 
precisely similar to those at the close of totality, and those of one eclipse 
just like those of all total and annular that have occurred since they 
were first described by Baily. The assertion seems justifiable that the cause 
of Baily's Beads is still enshrouded in darkness." 

I can thoroughly confirm Mr. Lewis Swift's words as to the 
practical uniformity of the beads in " size " and " shape." 

Mr. WALTER MAUNDER (Algiers, Hotel de la Kegence). Quite 
five seconds before Mr. Crommelin gave the warning " Ten 
seconds," the thin arch of sunlight, which yet remained, had been 
crossed by at least two black ligaments ; one at each end of the 
arch, but not placed with perfect symmetry with regard to it. 
Five seconds after that warning had been given, the bright arch, 
now worn down to a thread of extreme thinness, was broken by 
black intervals, in, I should say, at least eight or ten places. I 
did not venture to count them, for fear of distracting my attention 
from noting the exact moment of totality, since it had been 
arranged that I was to give the word " go " immediately second 
contact was complete. The arch of tiny bright images, which I 
had now before me, did not seem to me to correspond entirely 
with Francis Baily's famous description ; the " beads " were not 
circular spots of light, for their length was greater than their 
breadth. But the last stage in the phenomenon seemed to take 
place with extreme slowness. The impression on my mind was as 
if the moon had ceased to move over the face of the sun ; the ends 
of the arc of light, and the breadth of the " beads " shrank so 
imperceptibly. Then when I began to fear that my friends 
around would think I had forgotten my engagement to give the 
signal, so slow had the final changes seemed, the arc of light 
collapsed all over, and was gone ; just nine and a half seconds 
from Mr. Crommelin's " ten seconds' " signal. 

I observed with a Cooke refractor of 2^-inches aperture, and 
magnifying power of 25. The dark glass was a very dark 
neutral-tinted one, and I ascribe the want of apparent circularity 
of the " beads " to the depth of the dark glass. The glass was 



BAILY S BEA.DS. 



183 



too dark to allow any trace of the corona to be seen through it 
during totality. The " beads " were not looked for at third 
contact. 

Rev. AUGUSTIN MORFORD (Ovar). I looked both before and 
after for the moon's black disc outside the cusps, but never saw it. 
The cusps drew in rapidly. About one minute before totality the 




MOORISH WELL, EOXDA. 

inferior cusp was cut off by a lunar mountain about !' from its 
point. The parts separated rapidly disappeared, beginning from 
the point. I am quite certain of this observation. " Baily's Beads " 
showed well, both before and after (better before). Separate 
beads were flattened oval in shape, rather than round. 

Col. A. BURTON-BROWN, R.A. (Algiers, Cemetery Hill). These 
were beautifully seen by myself and many of my party just before 
totality, and during a much longer time than is usual, pro- 



184 THE TOTAL SOLAR, ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

jected on to the ground glass of a camera attached to one of my 
telescopes on which several also saw the corona. 

" Baily's Beads " were also noticed by Miss M. A. OBR (British 
Vice-Consul's house), by Mr. RICHARD ROBERTS (Algiers, Hotel 
Continental) ; by the Rev. C. D. P. DAVIES (Algiers, Hotel de la 
Regence) ; and by the Rev. H. P. SLADE (Estarreja). Mr. 
ROBERTS noted expressly the rugged outline of the moon's preceding 
limb as it advanced across the sun. This ruggedness of outline 
was perhaps scarcely surprising considering the great altitude of 
the mountains in the neighbourhood of the moon's eastern limb, 
some of which would probably represent nearly 4" of arc. 

Mr. SYDNEY EVERSHED (Algiers, Cape Matifou), observing with 
a grating attached to one object-glass of a field-glass by G-oertz, of 
course did not see "Baily's Beads" as such, but noticed the break- 
up of the continuous spectrum into streaks as the lunar mountains 
stretched across the remaining thread of the sun's disc. " I should 
guess that this time the time that elapses from the moment 
when the continuous spectrum breaks up into streaks, to the 
instant when the last streak vanishes and leaves a pure bright-line 
spectrum at certainly not less than one second ; indeed, just after 
the eclipse I estimated this time at two seconds." 



APPEARANCE OF THE Disc OF THE MOON. 

IT is of course perfectly well known that the moon during a total 
eclipse of the sun, although it usually appears much blacker than 
the sky, is yet strongly illuminated by earth-shine. Still there 
does not appear to be any record until the recent eclipse of the 
details of the lunar surface having been made out. The Rev. 
C. D. P. DAVIES, however, saw the surface rough, some parts 
darker and some brighter, and he adds the following description 
of the appearance of the lunar disc as seen in his telescope. 

" During the progress of the partial phase it had steadily 
maintained its black, featureless, and apparently flat 
appearance, as w.} all know it so well in partial eclipses. 
But within the space of a second or two its limb 
became weirdly illuminated with a white ashy light. It was 
palpably a globe not a mere lacuna in the disc of the sun 
a thing of itself; a thing plainly on this side of the sun. Its 
surface looked white and dusty, its craters lying ghostly in the 
pearly rays. The only illustration that I can imagine I have 
not tried it is to put a thin coating of paste on an india-rubber 
ball, and pepper it over with fine white wood ashes. Shut the 
shutters, and suspend it at such a distance from them that 
a beam of sunlight through a fine hole is just large enough to 
envelop the ball. Then view it some little way off, and very 



BAILY'S BEADS. 185 

nearly behind it. The appearance spread well within the limb, 
say a sixth of the moon's apparent diameter." 

This observation is of importance as showing from direct 
observation what we know theoretically to be the case, viz., 
that the moon though apparently so nearly black during an 
eclipse of the sun, yet is really under a by no means insensible 
amount of illumination. 

Several other observers remark on the apparent relief in which 
the moon was seen; as a sphere, not as a flat disc. Thus the 
Rev. F. W. QUILTER saw "the body of the moon as a globe of 
ebon blackness, and just before totality the spherical form of 
our satellite was as distinctly seen as a ball would be if suspended 
on a string within a few yards of one's vision." 



CHAPTER XVII. 

STARS AND PLANETS VISIBLE DURING THE 
ECLIPSE. 

" The stars rush out 
At one stride comes the dark " 

is Coleridge's vivid description of the brevity of tropical twilight. 
But it might well serve as a paraphrase for half the descriptions of 
total eclipses which have come down to us from ancient times. 
Thus in the eclipse of the year A.D. 840, May 5, we are told "there 
seemed no difference from the reality of night, that the stars shone 
out without any sensible diminution of light " ; and again in that of 
1140, March 20, the Saxon Chronicle relates, " In the Lent the sun 
and the day darkened, about the noontide of the day when men 
were eating, and they lighted candles to eat by." William of 
Malmesbury adds that the people " went out and beheld the stars 
around the sun." Clavius declares of the eclipse of 1560, August 
21, " There was darkness greater than that of night, no one could 
see where he trod, and the stars shone very brightly in the sky." 

Yet, in all the accounts which have come down to us from 
antiquity there are only two or three instances in which the corona 
is referred to, and even such references are doubtful. Whereas 
since eclipses have been made the subject of real and careful 
observation, the corona has stood out on every occasion as an object 
which could by no means be overlooked, as being, indeed, in its 
beauty, brightness, extent and mysteriousness the one feature of 
the eclipse beyond all others ; whilst the stars, which have been 
unmistakably detected and identified, have been very few indeed. 
Especial interest therefore attached to the eclipse of May last, since 
the sun was in an unusually rich portion of the heavens, and the 
great leaders of the heavenly host, Sirius, Procyon, Capella, 
Aldebaran, and the stars of Orion and the Twins, were all near at 
hand, and the search for stars was made a special object by several 
of our members. The results, though not numerous, are sufficient 
to show that the old accounts as to the numbers of stars seen were 
not wholly imaginative. For it must be remembered that in 1900 
the sun was entirely hidden but for a very short time, and the sky 
illumination was always very great. In an eclipse of longer dura- 
tion, the darkness at mid-totality would have been much increased, 
and, by consequence, a far greater number of stars would have been 

186 



STARS AND PLANETS VISIBLE. 



187 



recognised. The observation is one which should always be under- 
taken, as it affords a very full and unmistakable index of the 




STREET SCENE IN CORDOVA. 

general sky illumination during the eclipse, and of the conditions 
of observation. 

The fullest report in this section is from Mr. C. L. BROOK 
(Algiers, Hotel de la Ecgence) : In the pure sky of the 



188 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 

Mediterranean, Venus was a fairly easy object to see at any time, 
the only difficulty lay in picking her up ; I succeeded, however, in 
doing so every day from 22nd to 28th May inclusive, sometime 
between the hours of 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. 

Pollux and Castor were very near Venus, and having thus an 
excellent guide to their places, I decided to try and get the exact time 
they appeared. I picked up Venus at 1.44 p.m., Greenwich mean 
time, on the day of the eclipse, and tried to point her out to several 
observers, but most of them failed to see her; at 3.27 p.m., Greenwich 
mean time, many of them began to see her, showing that already, 
22 minutes after first contact, the sky was becoming darker. 

Seme ten minutes after this I noticed a sudden jump in the 
illumination ; perhaps this was an illusion, but the impression was 
the same as if, being in a room with four or five lighted candles, 
one had suddenly been extinguished. 

About two minutes before totality, I fixed my eyes on the place 
where Pollux ought to appear, and saw the star become visible at 
65 seconds before totality, just before the minute bell sounded ; I 
then turned round to look for Arcturus, but failed to find it, and 
my eyes being attracted to the colouring of the sky to the S.E., I 
noted as follows : Next the horizon a band of orange red perhaps 
ten degrees broad, above this a band of primrose yellow of about 
the same breadth, this merged into blue, which in turn became 
indigo violet, and at and round the zenith the sky was the most 
intense indigo purple I have ever seen. 

I then looked for Castor (about twelve seconds before totality) 
and found it fairly easy, and have little doubt I could have seen 
it thirty seconds earlier. 

On the evening of the 27th and 28th, I noted the time of the 
appearance of Pollux as 7h. 19m., Greenwich meantime, or 7h. 31m., 
Algerian time. 

My sister and 1 tried to estimate the darkness of the eclipse with 
reference to the twilight on the same evening ; we failed in this, but 
from the appearance of the white sheet, she judged that at 7h. 44m., 
Algerian time, the light was about equal to two or three seconds 
after totality. 

I glanced at Pollux and Castor during totality and found them 
shining like third magnitude stars. 

I saw Aldebaran during totality, and Mercury also, shining 
brighter than I have ever seen it before, except once during the 
great frost of 1895. 

My sister notes that she saw with the binoculars s Tauri 
(magnitude 37 Oxford Photometry) in the same field with Aldebaran 
during totality, also that at 4h. 1m., Greenwich mean time, the 
swifts began hovering round just as they did on several evenings 
in the twilight. 

My impression is that during totality I could have seen all second 
magnitude stars, or even 2^ magnitude stars, provided they had been 
some distance above the horizon, and provided also there had been 
some means of directing the eye exactly to the right place. Many 
stars escape being seen because there is no time to search for them. 



STARS AND PLANETS VISIBLE. 



189 



The observers at Naval moral report under this head as 
follows : 

Mr. C. T. WHITMELL. I saw Venus for some time after totality. 
She appeared nearly overhead, though her actual altitude was 72. 
The azimuth was 40 S. of W. Mercury was 2 (about four 
diameters) from the sun's centre, on a line passing through the 
lower right quadrant of the disc. He became invisible almost 
directly after totality ended. A bright star in the S.W. was, I 
believe, Sirius, which at totality had an altitude of 30, and an 
azimuth 24 W. of S. 

Mr. HOWARTH. Mercury was brilliant and almost touching the 
corona. Sweeping the sun with an opera-glass, no other planet or 




TOLEDO. 

star was visible near it, though further away, Venus and many 
fixed stars came into view. 

Mr. BUCKLEY. After the sun, the most striking object was 
Mercury, shining with a bright red gold tint, about two degrees 
from the right lower part of the sun. A few stars were visible, 
flashing out suddenly at totality. Aldebaran, Sirius, and the 
planet Venus, were the most conspicuous. 

Mrs. BUCKLEY. Observed with the greatest interest the quick 
shining out of various stars and planets. Venus overhead was 
particularly fine, and Mercury, magnificent. Aldebaran, Betel- 
geux, and Rigel, were also seen. 

Dr. STOKES. Mercury was distinctly seen, and was extremely 
brilliant. No other body of the nature of a planet or comet was 
seen. 



190 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

Miss PETHERICK. Many stars were visible. Venus was par- 
ticularly bright. 

Rev. C. T. STEWARD. Had only time to see Mercury. 

Misses L. and W. FOSTER. Venus and Mercury/ the former 
some minutes before totality. 

The Manzanares party record that "Venus was seen distinctly and 
with ease at 3.50 p.m., Greenwich mean time, and would have 
been seen much earlier if looked for. We were occupied in other 
matters, and our attention was drawn to Venus by the murmur 
of the crowd beneath. 

" Mercury was a very brilliant object during totality. It appeared 
as bright against the light ' eclipse ' sky as Jupiter had appeared 
the previous night against the clear dark night sky in the same 
place. The close proximity of the corona would of course further 
lessen the apparent brightness of Mercury, so that it is evident 
that Mercury really greatly exceeds Jupiter in brilliancy. 

"Mars was seen by the Spanish gentleman with us on our tower. 
They also saw Aldebaran, Sirius and Capella, and correctly 
described their positions to us." 

Miss McR,AE (Elche) reports seeing Venus, Mercury, Mars, 
Sirius, Capella, and Betelgeux with the naked eye. M. MOTE, also 
at Elche, saw no star except Sirius. Of course Mercury was very 
bright, whilst it is needless to say that Venus was dazzling over- 
head. C. NIELSEN (Ovar) reports the same three objects 
Mercury red-golden brown in colour. No other planets or stars 
were seen, though carefully looked for in their proper positions. 

At Plasencia, Dr. DOWNING returns Venus as first seen at 
3h. 28m., Madrid mean time, Sirius as first seen at 3h. 47m., 
Madrid mean time, the time of mid-totality being 3h. 51m., 
Madrid mean time. 

During totality Mrs. DOWNING detected, by the aid of her 
opera-glasses, s Tauri and u Tauri. These stars were identified by 
means of a chart giving the positions of the principal stars in the 
neighbourhood of the sun at the time of the eclipse. 

Mr. WALTER MAUNDER (Algiers, Hotel de la Regence), though 
not including the search for stars in his programme, found Sirius 
and Rigel, as well as Mercury and Venus, too bright and con- 
spicuous to be overlooked. 

Mrs. MARY CREWDSON (Algiers, House of the British Vice- 
Consul) saw with the naked eye : 

At the time of partial eclipse Venus. 

At totality, in the following order : 2. Mercury ; 3. Sirius ; 
4. Eigel ; 5. Capella. 

At half time 6. Aldebaran. 

At half time and one second 7. Epsilon in Taurus. 



STARS AND PLANETS VISIBLE. 191 

Search was made for some seconds after this for the " Pleiades," 
but they were not seen. Was surprised to see a very small star 
between Aldebaran and the sun, and made sure by repeated looks 
that there was a small one visible. From its position it was 
identified afterwards as " Epsilon " in Taurus. 



P 7iux 



Froeyon* . 



1 Siri 



STARS AND PLANETS ABOUND THE SUN, 1900, MAT 28. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

THE fullest report received on the meteorology of the eclipse 
is from Mr. C. L. BROOK (Hotel de la Regen.ce, Algiers), 
and is to the following effect: I took out with me 
the following instruments: A hydrograph, or wet and 
dry bulb continuously recording thermometers, by Richard 
Freres, Paris; dry and wet bulb thermometers of the ordinary 
pattern, in order to keep a check on the above; a Stevenson 
thermometer screen; a black bulb thermometer in vacuo for 
the sun's radiation; I had also a makeshift wind-vane consisting 
of a 16 ft. fishing rod and a piece of tow, which answered very 
well. 

The flat roof of an hotel is not an ideal place for exposing 
thermometers, but after some hesitation I chose the S.E. corner, 
overlooking the Place du Gouvernement, as being the least 
objectionable, and, considering the conditions of the weather, 
and the cool breeze prevailing on May 27th and 28th, I believe 
they were scarcely, if at all, affected by the glare of the sun on 
the tiles. 

The chief points to be noted are : 

(1) The extraordinary flatness of the curve of the temperatures 
in the stand; the maximum on the 27th did not exceed 68.0 F., 
and the minimum did not go below 61.0 F.; on the 28th the 
corresponding figures were 69.5 F. and 61.8 F. ; the range thus 
not exceeding 8.0 F. on either day. 

(2) The constant struggle between the sun and the slight, 
but cool breeze during the day time, which caused the trace to 
show innumerable small variations corresponding to slight 
variations in the force of the wind, which, however, never 
exceeded Force 2 on Beaufort's scale. 

(3) The extreme smoothness of the trace during the evening 
and night when there was no sun to affect it; during many 
hours of the night the temperature remained constant at from 
61.0 F. to 62.0 F. 

(4) During the time of the eclipse the trace shows the same 
smoothness with slight interruptions. 

(5) The fall of temperature, as shown by the dry bulb was, 
in the screen only 2.5 F., from 69.0 F. at 3.35 to 66.5 F. from 
4.20 to 4.40; the lowest temperature thus taking place about 
15 minutes after totality. 

192 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



193 



(6) The humidity, as shown by the dry and wet bulbs, rose 
distinctly though not to a great extent during the eclipse; it 




COVET OF THE LIONS, ALUAMBKA. 



was 62 p.c. at the commencement; rose to 70 during and after 
the total phase, and fell again to 67 at 5 o'clock. 

(7) The extremely rapid fall of the black bulb thermometer 
from 123 F. at 3.5 p.m., to 67.5 at 4.25 p.m., the lowest point 



194 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 




TEMPEEATTTBE OBSERVATIONS, 

Made by Mr. C. L. Brook, 1900, May 27th and 28th, at the 
Hotel de la Kegence, Algiers. 



METEO110LOGICAL OBSERVATK^S. 



195 




TEMPERATURE OBSERVATIONS, 
Made during the Eclipse of 1900, May 28th. 



196 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

observed, or 55.5 F. in. 80 minutes; here also the lowest point 
was probably slightly after the total phase. 

(8) The wind during the eclipse showed a tendency to back 
from N.N.E. to N.N.W., but it was very light all the time, and 
I do not think that it is at all certain that this was more than a 
coincidence. 

(9) There were no clouds except a few cumuli some 30 miles 
away over the hills to the south. 

The direction of the wind was on May 27th N.N.E., veering 
slightly to N.E. occasionally, and its force was very light. At 
8.35 there were cumulus clouds round the horizon, and at 9.50 
detached stratus overhead moving from the north. These dis- 
appeared, and from noon cumulus clouds were seen over the hills, 
but these by 3.35 were going so that at sundown the sky was 
practically cloudless. 

On May 28th, the wind kept the same general direction, N.N.E. 
to N. until 3.5 p.m., when it was N. N.N.W. Till 4 p.m. it 
came from N., and a,t 4.5. p.m. it was N.N.E. At 4.35 it was 
N.N.W., and for the rest of the afternoon from N. The force 
of the wind was 1 and 1 2 during the hours of passage of the 
moon over the sun. 

From 1.35 3.5 there were small cumulus clouds over the hills 
to the southwards, but these were almost gone at 4.5, and from 
4.30 on there were absolutely no clouds. 

I am not quite sure of the value of thermometer observations 
during an eclipse; they do not seem to have much bearing on 
eclipse phenomena ; another time, however, it might be advisable 
to have a recording solar radiation thermometer ; on a clear day 
the fall is so rapid that some relation might be established 
between the temperature and the amount of the sun's disc 
obscured. 

C. L. BROOK. 

The temperature readings at Algiers were markedly different 
from those at the other stations where such observations were 
taken. The stations in Spain and Portugal all show a very 
much higher shade temperature before the eclipse began, and a 
much deeper drop at totality. The accompanying diagram 
shows the readings obtained at four different stations, the times 
being reckoned before and after mid-totality. Oporto, as shown 
in the note communicated by Mr. G. F. Chambers, was much 
hotter even than Plasencia before the commencement of the 
eclipse, and the drop at totality was more marked. The obser- 
vations at Plasencia were communicated by Mr. T. WEIR; those 
at Navalmoral were made by the Rev. CHARLES J. STEWARD, the 
thermometers being exposed to the air under the shade of an olive 
tree at the height of four feet from the ground; and those at 
Elche by Mr. J. H. WILLIS. Mr. Willis adds: The greatest fall 
in the temperature was as follows : 

"In the sunshine, 11.8. Lowest at totality. 

" In the shade, 6.5. Lowest about one minute after totality. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 197 

" The records are of little value for showing the actual decrease 
of temperature during the eclipse, as the state of the weather was 
not similar throughout. Just before the first contact the tem- 
perature was lowered by a light cool southerly breeze, which died 
down unsteadily to an almost dead calm towards totality; after 
which it rose slightly for some twenty minutes, being then 
south-easterly." 

Cape Matifou, though so near Algiers, corresponded rather 
to the Spanish conditions. 

Dr. HEYWOOD SMITH, who was one of the sketching party who 
observed from the village school at Matifou, used a Casella's 
maximum and minimum thermometer, and having previously set 
the instruments, he found when the eclipse was over the following 
readings: Maximum, 79.7 F., minimum, 63.7 F., i.e., a differ- 
ence of exactly 16. Mr. E. DICKSON, who observed from the 
hill some 40 feet higher up, and about a quarter of a mile away 
from the school, gives these different readings (height of record- 
ing station 127 feet above the sea level), viz. : 

Temperature, 3.10 p.m 75 F. 

4.17 p.m 63 F. 

4.20 p.m 630 F. 

Giving a range of only 12. This difference in the variation of 
the temperature at the two stations so near to each other was 
certainly real ; the fact that the school was protected from wind 
and cold by other houses, by rising ground in front, and by trees 
in the distance, easily accounts for the apparent discrepancy, 
especially when one bears in mind that the higher station was 
open to the sea and air in almost every direction, and would 
thus naturally be the cooler station under most circumstances. It 
is interesting to note, however, that the minimum readings are 
practically the same in both these oases as at the Hotel de la 
Regence. 

Mr. G. F. CHAMBEBS supplies the following communication: 
Mr. Tait at Ovar, and, I may add, I myself also, and several 
persons at Oporto, noticed that the wind freshened considerably 
during the progress of the eclipse up to totality, and fell off 
again after totality. This is indeed confirmed by the automatic 
record made by the anemometer at the Meteorological Obser- 
vatory at Oporto, which showed that between 2.0 3.30 p.m. the 
velocity rose from 14 kilometres to 34 kilometres per hour ; and 
fell between 3.30 4.30 p.m., from 34 kilometres per hour down 
to 20. 

The following observations were made during the eclipse at 
155 Entre Quintas, Oporto, by Baron DE SOUTELLINHO : The 
thermometers used were avitreous clinical ones certified at 
Kew. The thermometer exposed to the sun was placed on a 
table covered with a white cloth, at a height of two feet above 



198 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 



the ground. The thermometer in shade was on a shelf under 
the table, and eight inches above the ground. It was screened 
on two sides, and open on the other two sides, the table being a 
square one. 



Temperature in Shade 
92 
88 
85 
83 
82 
80 
77 
77 
77i 
76* 
76* 



79 
79 
80 

80 

It is noticeable that about the time of totality the exposed 
thermometer fell rapidly to a point some degrees beloiv that 
reached by the shaded thermometer. 

In Oporto the morning was hot and sultry, and it seemed as if 
a thunderstorm was brewing. This heat continued till the eclipse 
became total, when suddenly a cool fresh feeling came over the 
air, reminding one of a bright early morning or a fresh spring 
evening in the mountains. As the sun again became clear, the 
air again became hot, though not so sultry as before. 



Hour 


Temperature in Sun. 


2.20 P 


M. ... ... 105 


2.40 


102 


2.55 


, ... ... 95 


3.05 


, ... ... 90 


3.20 


, ... ... 82 


3.25 


78 


3.31 


73 


3.33 


71 


3.35 


72 


3-40 


(about totality 72 


3-47 


74 


4.00 


81 


4.07 


85 


4.12 


89 


4.20 


90 


4.25 


92 


4.30 


92 



CHAPTER XIX. 

COLOURS ON LAND AND SKY. 

THE impress! veness of a total eclipse of the sun does not rest 
solely or even chiefly in the revelation of the corona, wonderful 
and unaccustomed though its appearance is. The daylight 
turned to darkness is much more the cause of awe ; and the 
darkness, being so different from that caused by a mist or fog, 
and distinguishable too from the gloom of a great storm cloud, 
has an unwonted effect which seems therefore to partake of the 
supernatural. And this effect is heightened by the strange 
colouring seen on land and sky. Every tint that seems to speak 
of life or warmth in the objects around fades out, and is replaced 
by the ghastly hue of decay. The flowers all look withered, the 
grass and trees exchange their living green for lead, the faces 
of the watchers lose all trace of health and become not merely 
wan hut livid. Whilst above, the blue of the sky has changed to 
a deep almost black funereal purple, and round the horizon, 
where the light is much the strongest, there is a glow of an 
angry gold, a sulphur-light not untinged with red. 

The longer the total phase, the more pronounced are these 
effects, and the deeper and more awe-inspiring the gloom. A 
short eclipse, therefore, like that of 1900, is not a specially good 
one in which to watch them. Indeed, of the three expeditions in 
which the British Astronomical Association has taken part, the 
one which offered the best opportunity for noting chromatic 
effects on land and sea, and in which the colouring would seem 
to have been the most vivid, was that to Lapland in 1896, which 
we are apt to think of as having been fruitless. That the 
weather was cloudy and the total phase was not seen at all, 
was from the standpoint of this particular observation an advan- 
tage not a drawback, since observers unable to see the corona- 
and prominences, were free to turn their undivided attention 
to the very striking atmospheric effects which were produced. 
And the Association were the more fortunate in that the observers, 
who had undertaken the duty of sketching the corona without 
telescopic aid, were under the direction of so eminent an artist and 
keen and experienced judge of colour as the late Mr. N. E. Green, 
F.R.A.S. At a general meeting of the passengers on the 
" Norse King," held on the day after the eclipse, and whilst 
the recollection of what had been seen was fresh in the minds of 
all, the subject was discussed in very great detail; and the 

199 



200 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

suggestion of Mr. Green, that the brilliant colouring which we 
had seen on the horizon, and in spaces between the clouds, was 
in truth only the same effect that we perceive at sunset, was 
generally felt to fully accord with our recent observation. 
During a total eclipse as seen from a station near the centre 
of the shadow track, the light on the horizon necessarily comes 
from regions beyond the zone of totality, and exhibits colour 
effects analogous to those of a sunset. In the eclipse just 
passed, by far the most attention was given to this question by 
the observers at Navalmoral ; though Mr. Whitmell, who reports 
on their behalf, is inclined to ascribe the effects rather to 
illumination by the chromosphere than to any action by our 
atmosphere. 

REPORT FROM NAVALMORAL. 
" Mille traliens varies adverso sole colores." Virgil. 

Mr. BUCKLEY : Appearance of landscape before totality very 
weird : dark twilight rapidly approaching ; pale green and 
yellow lights. The Sierra de Gredos presented for some time 
the charming rose-flush seen during Alpine sunsets. 

Mr. SOUTHALL : All round the horizon, to an altitude of 
perhaps 10, was a ring of subdued light resembling dawn. To 
the N., over the Sierra, some thin clouds showed, towards the 
end of totality, a tint of orange yellow. 

Mr. HOWARTH : At totality some clouds on the N.W. horizon 
took on a red glow like that of sunset. The atmosphere was 
rosy. 

Rev. C. J. STEWARD : A purple light on the plains, and 
purple with a tinge of red on the snow of the Sierra, as totality 
approached. The sky was purple-blue, as if seen through a red 
glass. The purple light came just before totality, and vanished 
suddenly when this was over. 

Miss W. FOSTER : A faint purple haze, becoming deeper and 
richer as totality progressed. The mountains looked pinkish 
just before totality. 

Dr. STOKES : Just before and early during totality, there was 
a distinct rosy glow on the clouds to the N. This was very 
beautiful, and seemed to be diffused through the atmosphere on 
the right. As totality proceeded, the rosy glow on the moun- 
tains to the right was succeeded by a bluish cast. 

Mr. LA GUIDARA : In the distance at totality the mountains 
assumed a remarkable dark blue-black inky colour, forming a 
pronounced contrast to their soft rose-tinted snowy peaks. On 
the horizon a few fleecy clouds seemed ablaze with a deep 
orange-red glow. Previous to totality the sky was an immaculate 
sheet of blue. 

Miss PETHERICK : A dark shadow was creeping over the 
mountains, and their snowy tops appeared of a lovely softened 
golden tint. The sky looked like what is often seen in Alpine 
regions, gold, with dashes of pink. 



COLOURS ON LAND AND SKY. 201 

Miss L. FOSTER : Observed sky colour, only between first and 
second contact. It gradually assumed a purplish blue tinge. The 
only clouds visible were some small streaks, low down near the 
horizon and above the Sierra. As totality came on, these turned 
from white to cream colour, deepening into sandy orange. With 
the rush of darkness the mountains suddenly became dull purple 
grey, the sky behind appearing of a pale, indefinite yellow tint 
the general effect in that part of the sky being much the same 
as that seen after a sunset. 

Rev. T. PITTS : White fleecy clouds, seen over the ridge of 
the Sierra, became suddenly golden orange when totality began. 
Before totality, when about five-sixths of the sun's disc were 
obscured, the remaining lune of the sun appeared deep red, 
when viewed through plain smoked glass. The same glass 
caused the ordinary unobscured sun to appear reddish yellow. 

[As Mr. Pitts was observing not the chromosphere, but a 
lune of the sun, it seems to me that the curious alteration in 
hue was probably due to the fact that there is a qualitative as 
well as a quantitative difference between light from the sun's 
centre and light from near the limb. The light from the latter 
is not only less bright, but is also relatively poorer in the more 
refrangible rays hence the increased redness. C. T. W.] 

Mr. and Mrs. CONSTABLE (at Talavera) : Light failed slowly, 
but ended abruptly. Red glass gave a much better view than green 
glass. [This, I think, was to be expected from the nature of the 
light of the chromosphere, etc. C. T. W.] To call the effect moon- 
light would hardly be right, as the shade was warmer and more 
weird. For painting the scene raw umber would be truer than 
the colour used for the green tones of moonlight. The horizon 
became deep burnt sienna and orange colour, the sky shading 
up into a dark tone of nightrblue, purple, and raw umber 
towards the sun. The distant mountains became deep blue- 
purple. Clouds on the horizon were reddish yellow. 

It will be noticed that observers mention in connection with 
totality the appearance of red, orange, purple, rose, and pink 
colours on the landscape, or in the sky. As the sun's altitude 
was 39, I attribute these warm colours to illumination by the 
chromosphere. It seems hardly reasonable to suppose that mere 
diminution in the quantity of sunlight could produce these 
colours, and, obviously, the differential action of our atmosphere 
could not come into play, because the altitude of the sun 
remained practically unaltered. 

C. T. WHITMELL. 

Beside that from the observers at Navalmoral, brief reports 
have been received from other stations as follows : 

Mr. C. NIELSEN (Ovar) notes that the light disappeared very 
gradually towards second contact, making surrounding objects, 
such as the pine trees, human faces, etc., ashen-grey and livid. 
At the moment of totality the light round the horizon changed 
into gold, and from thence up to 45. From thence up to the 



202 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 



zenith it was violet-purple. After totality the light increased 
very much more quickly than it had decreased before, even 
allowing for subjectivity. 

Mr. T. W. BACKHOUSE (Plasencia) : As regards the landscape 
and sky effects these were most magnificent. This part of the 
phenomenon we missed in India, since we were on a plain, 
and there were no clouds. I did not observe it particularly 
before or during totality, but could not help seeing it more or 
less. The colours were somewhat like sunset colours, though 




THE LANDING STAGE OF THE COMPAGNIE TEANSATLANTIQUE, ALGIERS. 



not exactly; I did not notice any red, it was more the earlier 
stage of sunset colouring, but in quite a different combination. 

When totality was passing away from us, the colouring was 
much the same, the foreground being bright and orange, which 
colouration rapidly spread to the more eastern parts of the hill ; 
beyond, in the shadow, was dark blue; the sky in the distance 
was orange low down, fading upwards into yellow, etc., and 
finally into dark blue above. 

4h. 8|m. G.M.T. The distant mountains to E.S.E. are in the 
shadow, and dark blue. 

4h. 9m. G.M.T. The mountains are now all illuminated, 
but the shadow is still visible in the sky reaching from them up 
to an altitude of perhaps 1 above them. 



COLOURS ON LAND AND SKY. 



The middle of totality would be at 4h. 6m. 21s. G.M.T., 
according to calculations, so that the last observation would be 
about 2m. after the end of totality. 

Mr. IRWIN SHARP (Plasencia) : The darkness seemed about the 
same in intensity as it was in India, but of a different nature. 
There it was simply a diminished light with a softness like 
moonlight, but here I felt a gloom hanging over me, which I 
cannot exactly describe. I did not notice the shadow stalking 
over the land at 40 miles a minute ; but after totality we could 




THE OLD HARBOUR OF ALGIERS. 



This photograph shows the old Moorish building formerly occupied by the 
harbour master of the time and now used by the French Admiralty, with the 
torpedo station attached. Above and behind it is seen the modern lighthouse 
which marks the harbour from the sea. 



gradually see the more distant parts in the plain getting lighter 
one after the other. 

The mountains looked as they do after sunset, but the clouds 
on the horizon were not so bright. 

In one direction they were of a lemon yellow colour, and in 
the opposite direction they were more of an orange hue. 

For some time before the eclipse became total, there was an 
increasingly soft " evening '' light, and as the light of the sun 
grew less, it made the shadows of the flowers stand out with 
startling clearness. 



204 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1900. 

Mr. H. KEATLEY MOORE (Manzanares) : The colour of the sky, 
which before the eclipse was intensely blue, paled gradually, and 
was of a gentle twilight gray during totality. 

The colours of the landscape dulled during the eclipse, as if 
looked at through gray glasses of increasing tints. On the 
cessation of totality the distant hills became beautifully coloured, 
as in a fine dawn, with roseate and yellowish hues. 

Mr. E. W. JOHNSON, in his record of observations of the party 
at Elche, gives a note by Miss McRAE to the effect that at 3.50 
there was a marked difference in the light, a weird look came 
over everything, the palm trees looked purple, and faces ghastly. 
Simultaneously with the appearance of the corona came wonder- 
ful sunset colours round the horizon ; pale apricot colour below, 
shading to amber and red above. The corona appeared to be 
of the purest silvery white, one of the equatorial extensions, 
that towards the planet Mercury, being seen to more than three 
lunar diameters from the sun's centre. It was noticed by several 
that the light apparently returned more quickly than it had 
disappeared. 

M. MOYE (Elche) reports that during totality the sky was 
dim, the blue was become an ashy grey ; round all the horizon a 
large zone of a golden-yellow hue, with rosy and lilac streamers, 
produced a, very artistic effect. The landscape was as if drowned 
in a dull grey, the colours died out of the objects, the appearance 
was grand and rather sorrowful. 

Col. BURTON-BROWN (Cemetery Hill, Algiers) noticed some 
ten minutes before totality a marked yellowish haze, and a little 
later a ghastly look spread over things. This greenish yellow 
haze was much observed by one of our party, who went high up 
into the mountains on the central line, 100 miles from Algiers, 
sketching; he mentions this haze as being seen everywhere. 

Dr. HEYWOOD SMITH, M.D. (Cape Matifou) : The general effect 
on the landscape seemed more pronounced during the last few 
seconds before totality and its on-coming, for the waning light 
held all in a dusky glcom, not twilight; then the hills got dark 
purple, and the darkness came on at the end quite suddenly; 
the last point covered was about N.W.N. It was a different sort 
of obscurity from the light of the full moon, more diffuse and 
soft, and just light enough to sketch on white paper. The colour 
of the sky seemed to be a deep purple, not so dark as an hour 
or so before dawn in an Alpine night at a height of about 
10,000 to 12,000 feet up. 



SHADOWS DURING THE PARTIAL PHASE. 

As the portion of the sun still visible grows smaller and smaller 
with the approach of totality, so the shadows necessarily 
become sharper, since the source of illumination has a smaller 
area. This is clearly seen in the accompanying photograph (p. 206), 




COLOURS ON LAND AND SKY. 



205 



of the harbour of Algiers taken a few minutes before second 
contact, and also in the photograph of the promenade deck of the 
"Austral," on p. 23. Another curious shadow effect is described 
as follows by Mr. H. KRAUS NIELD : 

As a matter of curiosity I took a photograph, about twenty 
minutes before second contact, of the shadow, on a vertical wall, of 
one of the plumb-lines. I reproduce below on a larger scale the 
appearance of this shadow on the print. It is, of course, perfectly 
natural and easily explained owing to the crescent shape and 
oblique direction of the source of the light at the time, but it 
nevertheless looked very curious and remarkable when we first 
saw it. 



Shadow of a Plumb-line 
20 ruin, before Totality. 




String. 



WALL 



EXPLANATION. 



THE SHADOW or THE MOON. 

THE coming and passing of the shadow of the moon was looked 
for at almost every station, but was seen as a definite outline, 
at three only. Mr. G. F. CHAMBERS reports that the shadow was 
seen by his friend, Mr. A. F. WARRE, from the roof of the Serra 
Convent, Oporto; and at Pont Mazafran, Algeria, where Mr. 
EVERSHED was stationed, the people in the neighbourhood said 
that they saw a distinct line of demarcation out at sea between 
the zone in complete shadow, and that where the eclipse was 
only partial. Col. BURTON-BROWN, at Cemetery Hill, Algiers, 
though he did not see the approach of the shadow himself, says 
that several observers in his party saw it coming over the 
Bay at the rate of about | of a mile per second. The observers 
at Navalmoral, who were very well placed for seeing the shadow, 



206 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1900. 



looked specially for it, but saw nothing definite. Mr. JOHNSON'S 
party at Elche also failed to see it; Mr. NIELSEN at Ovar, Mr. 
WEIR at Plasencia had the same negative result, and of several 
observers at Cape Matifou, who went to higher ground, largely 
in the hope of seeing the shadow, not one was satisfied that he 
had seen it with that distinctness which had been expected. 
At the Hotel de la Regence, Algiers, at the instant of third contact 
Mr. CEOMMELIN states: "I immediately ran to the south wall 
of the hotel, where I had placed a hand camera in readiness for 




THE PLACE DU GTOUVERNEMENT, ALGIEES, DURING THE PARTIAL ECLIPSE. 
THE " ARGONAUT " IN THE HARBOUR. 



attempting to photograph the retreating shadow in the sky. I 
saw at once, however, that the attempt was really hopeless; 
there was a murky yellow glow towards the south-east, and it 
was plain that the distant mountains were still in the shadow, 
but absolutely no outline to the shadow could be traced on 
either sky and land. I exposed the plate, however, but, as I 
expected, it only showed a uniform diffused light all over, and 
is consequently of no interest." 

Mr. C. L. BROOK at the same station also " turned to observe 
the receding shadow, but failed to see it; all that can be said 
is that some few seconds after totality was over, the land across 



COLOURS ON LAND AND SKY. 207 

the bay to the S.E. brightened up rapidly, while the Djur- 
Djurra mountains, some 30 miles or more distant, were still 
shrouded in gloom, their outlines only being barely, if at all, 
discernible; there was at no time any appearance of a definite 
boundary line between the shadow and the sunlight. " 

On the other hand, the Rev. F. W. QUILTER, also at the same 
station, was much impressed by the shadow, his success in 
detecting it being probably due to the fact that he gave more 
undivided attention to the watch for it than did the other 
observers. " The moon's shadow, like a curtain let down from 
the zenith to the surface of the Mediterranean, appeared to be 
drawn along the sea by an invisible hand. The spectacle of an im- 
material shadow seen in mid-air, and not reflected on a solid 
substance, had a novel and supernatural appearance." 

Still, the failure of so many observers to see the shadow at 
all would seem to show that, for some reason or other, it must 
have been much less dark and definite at this eclipse than it 
has been at some others. 



CHAPTER XX. 

EFFECTS ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS. 

THERE is one astronomical observation which lies within the 
scope of even animals and plants ; they notice the change from 
night to day and from day to night. Sunrise and sunset are 
felt by them, and they respond to their influence. It has been, 
therefore, a point of great interest to notice how they are affected 
by an event which, coming upon them out of the ordinary course 
of nature, and unexpectedly, reproduces so nearly the circum- 
stances of the great diurnal change. 

Considerable attention was paid to this department of obser- 
vation during the late eclipse, and in particular we owe the 
following full report to Mr. GT. F. Chambers, who has collected 
several important notes from observers in Ovar and Oporto. 

Mr. G. F. CHAMBERS' REPORT. Having received offers from 
several competent students of nature to observe the behaviour 
of animals and plantsi during the eclipse of the sun, I thought 
it would be interesting to possess such a record. Mr. W. TAIT, 
of Oporto, sent me the following notes, which I reproduce as 
nearly as may be in his own words : 

" I took down to Ovar on the morning of May 28, in pots, two 
sensitive plants (Mimosa Pudica), a, silver wattle (Acacia Deal- 
bata), a Sazania Splendens, and a Mesembryanthemum Poly- 
anthutn. My place of observation was the garden at the back 
of the house of Dr. G. H. Bacellar. On unpacking my plants 
they showed of course the effects of the long and shaky railway 
journey, and deprivation of light. The leaves of the sensitive 
plants and of the silver wattle were closed. The flowers of the 
Mesembryanthemum were also closed, but the flowers of the Saiania 
(called by the Portuguese " Boas Noites," or the " Good Night " 
plant, from its habit of closing its flowers in the evening) 
appeared to have been but little affected by the journey. It is 
possible that this may have been owing to the fact that the 
plant had been transplanted only four days previously, and to 
the flowers being rather old. Dr. Bacellar had in his garden 
some specimens of this same species of Sazania, but these were 
placed so that just as the eclipse began the shadow of a neigh- 
bouring building fell on them, and this would have caused them 
to close their petals independently of the eclipse. 

" On placing my plants in the sun, which was shining through 
a thin haze, the leaves of the sensitive plants, of the silver wattle, 

208 



EFFECTS ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS. 209 

and the flowers of the Mesembryanthemum, gradually re-opened 
and remained open for some time, although the first contact had 
taken place and the eclipse had begun. At 3.6 p.m. the 
flowers and leaves were still open, but the air was sensibly cooler, 
the wind being about N.N.W. At 3.17 I heard all the cocks 
crowing vigorously; ring doves in a cage were cooing softly; 
the sky had assumed a peculiar lurid grey hue with a strange 
reddish purple tint; the plants were still open. Two minutes 
later I noticed a great change. The sky had become much 
darker. The flowers of the Mesembry anthem um and the leaves 
of the sensitive plant had become partly closed, though the 
silver wattle seemed to be but little affected. The swifts were 
Hying much lower than previously, but I did not hear the shrill 
screams which they so often utter when chasing each other in 
the evening. After totality the sun re-appeared with great 
suddenness, like an electric arc-light hastily turned on. In another 
ten minutes there was plenty of light everywhere. I was much 
surprised to notice that though the sensitive plant had com- 
menced to re-open its leaves the flowers of the Mesembryanthe- 
mum were still closed, and did not re-open during the half hour 
that elapsed before I left the garden to visit the party which 
accompanied the Astronomer-Royal. They told me that 
the domestic fowls in an enclosure in their garden went to roost 
when the darkness came on. Unfortunately I did not notice 
until too late that Dr. Bacellar had near his house an aviary, 
containing several species of birds and some rabbits, or I might 
have conducted my researches on a larger scale. I heard 
sparrows chirping during an eclipse, and in any case the 
explosion of the dynamite rockets would have sufficed to startle 
all the birds within half-a-mile of Ovar, and to render them 
restless for a long time, though the discharge of the rockets was 
made to stop at 3 p.m. 

" I may supplement what I saw myself by mentioning some 
things noticed by my wife and by friends who remained at 
Oporto. My wife saw a bat flying about during totality, as it 
would have done at night. No special effect was produced on 
our domestic fowls, turkeys, and ducks. A Mesembryanthemum 
of the same species as that which I took over to Ovar partially 
closed. The Escholt-ias which were in the shade closed a little, 
but those which were in the open and unshaded were not 
appreciably affected." 

Miss EMILY Dow, speaking of a pair of ducks, says: "At 
3.30 they got out of their large tank, went up a flight of stone 
steps and through the garden to their roosting-hut, taking their 
usual drink at a small tank on their way. They went to sleep 
in their hut with their heads tucked under their wings. When 
forcibly ejected some minutes later they made for the dining- 
room window, and waited there as if expecting their usual break- 
fast of bread, it being customary for them to go there regularly 
every morning to be fed, and apparently they thought that 
morning had come again." 



210 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 



The observations of Mr. Tait and Miss Dow were confirmed 
by Mr. A. NUGENT, who, speaking of an Escholtzia in flower, 
said that " At 2.38 the curling of the petals preparatory to 
closing was quite manifest, and it appeared as if one could see 
the actual movement. The operation of closing continued till 
about 4, though the eclipse was over and the sunlight greatly 




INTERIOR OF THE ARCHBISHOP'S PALACE, ALGIERS. 



restored. In point of fact re-opening did not begin till about 
5. It seemed as if the operation of closing having once begun 
must go on till completed, and that not till then could re- 
opening begin." Mr. Nugent reports the case of a Scotchman 
who, beincr in the habit of taking whisky and water every evening, 
was so affected as the totality approached that, thinking it was 
night, he was seizjed with an irresistible impulse, and rushed to 



EFFECTS ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS. 211 

get his usual evening drink. [Mr. Tait casts doubts upon the 
authenticity of this statement, but I do not see why he should 
have done so. G. F. C.] 

Dr. CERQUEIKA SOMES, observing the eclipse at Oporto from 
the Crystal Palace Gardens, which overlook the Douro, saw 
before the eclipse many gulls flying about over the river. As 
the eclipse came on before totality they disappeared, subsequently 
reappearing after the eclipse was over. Dr. Somes, speaking of 
certain pigeons habitually fed every afternoon, states that their 
feeding was delayed on the afternoon of the eclipse until darkness 
distinctly came on in order to see what might happen. The 
pigeons were much disturbed and alarmed, and ceased to eat, 
stretching their necks upward to the sky as if apprehensive of 
the approach of some bird of prey. When the sun reappeared, 
they recommenced eating. 

Senhor BAEBOSA noticed the disappearance of the gulls at 
Oporto before totality, and their reappearance after. He saw 
pigeons go to roost, and monkeys in the Crystal Palace Zoo- 
logical Department climb to the top of their cages, and take 
refuge in the boxes where they were accustomed to sleep. As 
the darkness came on a peacock ran screaming across the grounds 
as if frightened by some wild animal being after it. The 
rapidly growing darkness had evidently moved it into seeking 
its usual roosting-place. 

Regarding Man as an animal, the following report by Mr. 
ARTHUR DAGGE may be said to belong to this section. He says 
that he saw a country-woman who was on her knees praying 
aloud suddenly seize a handful of earth and put it into her mouth. 
It would have been interesting to have inquired of her the 
meaning of this nasty performance, and from whence she 
borrowed the idea. A native spectator who was in the Crystal 
Palace Gardens was affected in quite a different manner. As 
the sun burst forth after the total phase, he cried out 
" Bis ! bis !" (the equivalent of " encore ") as though he were 
pleased with the performance and wished for a repetition of it. 

The following observations were made at 155 Entre Quintas, 
Oporto, by the Baron DE SOUTELLINHO : The plants chosen 
were Escholtzia, growing in the ground in a sunny situation ; 
and Mimosa Pudica, Acacia Mclanoscylon, Acacia Farnesiana, 
Acacia Acanthocarpa, all in pots. 

Escholtzia 
At 2.20 Fully open. 

2.40 White and pale yellow ones began to close. Orange 
ones not affected. 

3.5 White and pale yellow ones one-third close. Orange 
ones beginning to close. 

3.30 White and pale yellow ones quite closed. Orange ones 
closing rapidly. 

3.40 All closed. 

4.30 Four or five flowers re-opened; the remainder re- 
mained closed for the rest of the day. 



212 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, TQOO. 

Bees. There were two hives of bees under observation, 
and in front of the hives were some plants of borage. 
At 2.20 The bees were lively at the hives and on the borage. 

3.5 Still lively. 

3.30 Crowding into hives and leaving the borage. 

3.32 No bees on borage, a few still entering hive. 

3.40 Bees rushing in crowds out of hive. 

3.50 Borage again covered with bees. 

The Baron said that the effect on birds was less than he 
expected; though fowls looked uneasy, and some of them flew 
into trees to roost, yet they never became silent. Wood doves 
cooed all the time of the eclipse, and other birds continued 
singing. The nurse frog (Alytes Obstetricans), which usually 
begins to pipe at sun-down, did not pipe during the eclipse 
but ignored the phenomenon. 

G. F. CHAMBERS. 

Our members in Portugal gave especial attention to this 
subject, and at Ovar the Rev. AUGUSTIN MORFORD gives the 
following notes : We were able to see, and especially to hear, 
something of the effects of the eclipse on the animal creation. 
The sparrows were twittering about the roofs, just as they do 
before settling down for the night. About a quarter of an hour 
before totality the swallows were flitting as at twilight. A few 
minutes later they had disappeared, and I did not see them again 
till long after. The ants returned from their journeys, and 
collected round their holes ; they did not all enter. 

The fowls in the garden kept up a perpetual uneasy crowing 
and cackling. Mansel tells me that near totality they roosted, 
some in the trees, some in the fowl-house. Shortly after the 
lights returned they came back, and set up a triumphant 
crowing. 

The effect on the people was diverse. I had only to do with 
the more intelligent, who followed every detail with the highest 
interest. Mansel, who can neither read nor write, helped most 
intelligently, and observed for himself with surprising exactness 
and memory. He described quite correctly the positions of 
Mercury and Aldebaran before seeing the chart. Our hostess, 
a fairly rough specimen of a peasant woman of these parts, and 
the inn servants could not find words to express their admiration. 
On the other hand, the clockmaker, who "had been to the sea 
vainly trying to see the moon's shadow advance, had come across 
an old woman, weeping and lamenting bitterly, and another 
trying to comfort her by assuring her that the worst was past, 
and no harm had been done. 

Mr. C. NIELSEN, also at Ovar, reports swallows that had been 
flying over the pinewood in their normal way, got very con- 
fused as darkness came on, and during totality uttered plaintive 
cries and flew about, evidently in greatest bewilderment. Older 



EFFECTS ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS. 



213 



peasantry and fisher-folk, much perturbed, crowded into church 
crossing and prostrating themselves; the younger (and wiser?) 
generation were flippant, and loudly applauding as if demanding 
an encore ! 

From Estarreja the Rev. H. P. SLADE remarks : Some of 
the effects upon the world of life are worth recording. Senor 




GOVEBXOB'S SUMMER PALACE, MUSTAPHA SVPEBIECB. 

Goncalo Sampio, a botanist of Poroto, has from observations 
at the Botanical Gardens, deduced the following: (1) Several 
of the plants were manifestly sensitive to the influences of the 
eclipse, presenting phenomena similar to those produced by the 
common irregular variations of the sun's light and heat, and 
those of twilight. For instance, the sensitive plant Minium 



214 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

Pudica closed at totality. (2) The influence upon flowers was 
the greatest of all. (3) The influence was more marked upon 
plants growing in sunny localities than on those in the shade. 
(4) In plants and flowers of the same time the youngest were 
the most sensitive. 

During totality the birds ceased singing, the swallows flew 
low, bats suddenly appeared, and the nightingale was heard. 
Animals did not appear unduly excited, but upon the lower 
classes of the community there fell a great dread, and in 
Estarreja a number of peasant women sought the refuge of 
the church as totality drew on, and gave vent to their 
fears in prayer on their knees. In the country many work- 
people and farm labourers were afraid to leave their houses 
for the fields, and those who were bold enough to do so 
gathered at some convenient rendezvous to encourage one another 
as semi-darkness set in. We understood the priests had informed 
them that something strange was to happen in the sky, which 
was not the least dangerous, and consequently their faces 
bore the expression of suspicion rather than dread. One who 
was abroad early on the morning of th^e eclipse solemnly 
affirmed that he read in the sky, " Go on pilgrimage to Rome." 
It appears that a pilgrimage to Rome was now going on, and that 
several persons who ought to have gone had not done so, and 
this celestial exhortation was evidently meant for tbem. In 
Portugal there are only 20 per cent, of the population who can 
read, and we are not surprised to find that among many of 
these the eclipse was associated with the end of the world. 
One old woman said, " I have seen a moon eclipse when I was 
husking maize, and when the moonlight came again it was ill (i.e., 
appeared of a sickly cast). The world will finish one of these 
years. If it finishes to-day I'll not see it, because I'll shut mine 
eyes till to-morrow." 

At Plasencia Mr. WEIR says that during the oncoming of the 
darkness it was noticeable that the birds in our neighbourhood 
were disturbed, flitting rapidly about, as if frightened, while 
the insects made more than their accustomed noise; and both 
birds and insects seemed to feel relieved when the eclipse was 
over. 

At Santa Barbara, near Plasencia, Mr. IRWIN SHARP remarks 
that whilst waiting for the eclipse to begin we noticed that 
the bees were keeping up a perpetual hum as they went from 
one flower to another, growing here in rich profusion. 

During the totality and for a little while before and after 
they ceased their humming, no doubt being led astray by the 
gathering gloom. 

The cuckoo was very busy before and after, but I cannot say 
whether he too ceased his note or not. Immediately after the 
direct sunlight recommenced the humming-bird hawk moths 
were hard at work on the honeysuckle flowers, but the butter- 



EFFECTS ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS. 215 

flies (two sorts of swallow tail, clouded yellows, marble whites 
and various others) did not recover their equanimity for some 
time. 

The notes of the observers at Navalmoral are as follows : 

Mr. SOUTHALL : As totality approached an awful stillness 
fell upon the scene. Two or three small birds were fluttering 
about apparently seeking to hide themselves. No other living 
creature was heard or seen. The absolute quiet was marvellous. 

Rev. C. J. STEWARD : At 4h. 5m., G.M.T., birds observed 
flying as if in terror. At 4h. 13m., birds flying as if rejoicing 
at the return of light. 

Dr. STOKES : Perfect stillness obtained at totality, a stillness 
accentuated by the previous and subsequent activity noticed 
in the crickets, ants, and lizards, in the neighbourhood. 

Miss W. FOSTER : Perfect silence during totality. 

Mr. and Mrs. CONSTABLE at Talavera : As darkness increased, 
and the temperature fell, hawks collected, and ascended some 
400 feet, sailing around in small circles, and repeatedly calling 
as if alarmed. At totality a most extraordinary stillness came 
over everything. 

The Manzanares party supply the following note: Swifts 
were flying in considerable numbers round our tower, screaming 
in, their usual manner, at the commencement of the eclipse. 
They had all disappeared 20 minutes before totality. 

The Alcalde of Manzanares (who noted the times of totality 
by a good watch, and confirms our observation that it lasted 
precisely 60 seconds) noticed the animals in his garden during 
totality. Numerous small birds fluttered in a frightened way 
to and fro; and several clung by their claws to the face of a 
rough wall, trembling greatly. Bats came out, and fluttered 
round him. The domestic cock led off his hens to roost. 

Few observations upon either plants or animals were made 
by any of the Algerian parties. The observers on the roof of the 
Hotel de la Regence noticed indeed it was impossible to 
overlook the excitement and apparent distress of the swifts 
and martens, as the eclipse drew on towards totality; and the 
passengers on the " Argonaut " were impressed by the same 
circumstance. In general birds seemed far more affected by 
the change in the light than quadrupeds, and Mr. KRAUSS 
NIELD at Cape Matifou says that from his position during 
totality a goat was observable, but like the tonga ponies men- 
tioned by Mr. Henry Cousens, at Jeur, in 1898, it displayed a 
total want of appreciation of the event, or at any rate, it was 
doing so at the moment when a hurried glance could be spared. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

PLACES OF INTEREST VISITED. 

BESIDE the drawings and photographs which have a direct scien- 
tific bearing on the eclipse, and the photographs of the several 
stations, of the observers and of their instruments, some illus- 
trations have been added, representing some of the places visited 
in the course of the expeditions. This is following the precedent 
set in the Indian Eclipse Report, in which it met with general 
approval, although one or two critics seemed to take the view 
that astronomers should have no appreciation of beauty in nature 
or art, or interest in historical associations. Against so sombre 
a doctrine we protest. But apart from this, we would point out 
that much of our work in the late eclipse was of the nature of 
hand-drawing or of photography, and that the photographs we 
give, besides their value to ourselves and our friends, as records 
of the places visited, afford some evidence that those who took 
them possess both artistic perception and photographic skill. 

INTERIOR OF THE ARCHBISHOP'S PALACE, ALGIERS (p. 210). 
This shows the gallery of the quadrangle of a palace built by 
one of the old Deys for his son. All the Moorish buildings are 
in this style, and in the large houses, such as this is, a great 
quantity of marble is used which makes these quadrangles 
beautifully cool. The tiles of blue and white are also a feature 
of the architecture. None of the Moorish houses have any 
windows in the outer walls, but there are in some instances 
small barred casements. The casement in the top centre of the 
picture is a good sample of these, although this one happens to 
be facing inwards. 

GOVERNOR'S SUMMER PALACE, MUSTAPHA SUPERIEUR (p. 213). 
Mustapha Superieur is a suburb of Algiers, where all the modern 
villa residences a.nd best hotels are situated. It is two or three 
miles to the east of the town. The palace is charmingly situated 
overlooking the town and bay, with the Atlas mountains bound- 
ing the horizon to the south and east. It is a fine specimen of 
Moorish architecture, parts are old, and additions have been 
made after the original style in recent times. The grounds are 
full of various kinds of palms and other trees, which grow to 
great perfection. On the right of the picture is a fine group of 
banana trees. 



216 



PLACES OF INTEREST VISITED. 



217 



QUADRANGLE IN THE TRAPPIST MONASTERY AT STAVUELI 
(p. 217). This monastery is between two and three hours drive 
from Algiers. Many years ago it was used as barracks by the 
French, but in consequence of the heavy mortality from disease 
which occurred among the soldiers, it was evacuated by them 
and given to the monks, who, by their appearance and longevity 
seem to have managed matters as regards health better than 




QUADRANGLE !>' THE TRAPPIST MONASTERY AT SlAVUKLI. 

the men of war. The monks have a large acreage of land under 
vine cultivation, and carry on an extensive trade in wine and 
liqueur. 

There is a fine library with a good collection of coins and 
curios. The rule as to " silence " is not carried out to the 
extent that is generally imagined, as the monks are permitted 
to converse with visitors in many parts of the building and with 
each other by permission of the abbot. There is a beautiful 
garden in the quadrangle full of various flowers of gorgeous 



218 THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, IQOO. 

colours. Ladies are not admitted further than an outer hall, 
where visitors are supplied with a good and varied vegetarian 
repast. The monk who showed our party over was very proud 
of being a British subject; he was born in Malta. 

STREET SCENE IN CORDOVA (p. 187). The narrow and dull 
streets of Cordova are enlivened by such scenes as that shown in 
the photograph, but they have a curiously deserted appearance 
on the whole. The exteriors of most of the houses are dreary 
and plain, though there are pleasant glimpses of cool, shady 
patios through the beautifully wrought iron doors. The city 
boasts of a picturesque Roman bridge over the Guadalquiver, 
but the centre of interest is undoubtedly the famous Moorish 
mosque, with its endless vistas of columns and arches. 

COURT OF LIONS, ALHAMBRA (p. 193). This photograph shows 
the most beautiful and most characteristic work in the Alhambra, 
bringing in as it does the slender marble columns, the graceful 
arches, the lace-like filagree stucco with the innumerable Arabic 
inscriptions, and the roofs with the rounded, many-coloured 
tiles. 

At the side of the Court is shown the entrance to the Hall of 
the Abencerrages, where, according to tradition, several of the 
illustrious nobles of this name were treacherously murdered by 
order of Boiabdil, the last King of Granada. 

It may be well to remind our readers that the Alhambra 
occupies a prominent position on a hill overlooking the city of 
Granada, its outer walls enclosing an area of about 35 acres ; it 
was originally built as a fortress. Not much now remains but 
the palace, with the mosque and several towers. 

Granada was the final stronghold of the Moors in Spain, and 
it was not until the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, that their 
power was completely broken, and Boabdil surrendered in the 
year 1492. 

THE ALCAZAR. SEVILLE (p. 181). Next to the Alhambra, this is 
the most perfect specimen of Moorish work left in Spain. It 
was the Royal Palace, and a considerable part of it is in a 
wonderfully perfect state of preservation. The walls and mosaics 
are brilliantly coloured, and the pillars are all of precious 
marbles. 

MOORISH WELL, RONDA (p. 183). The well shown in this photo- 
graph is in the patio of a ruined Moorish palace, which is now 
inhabited by a family of peasants. Ronda has many Moorish 
remains, and is a very picturesque town about six hours by rail 
from Gibraltar, built on a high rock, and almost surrounded 
by the River Guadalvin. The streets are narrow and steep, 
and the old town is divided from the new by an immense ravine 
or chasm, called the Tajo, which is spanned by two bridges. 
The steep sides of this ravine are covered with luxuriant vege- 
tation, and a profusion of wild flowers. 

TOLEDO (p. 189). The ancient capital of Spain and one of the 
oldest cities in Europe. It stands on a hill, and is surrounded 
on three sides by the Tagus; the other side is defended by two 



PLACES OF INTEREST VISITED. 219 

walls, the inner one having been built in the 7th century. As one 
approaches the city, its first appearance is bare and stern, but 
this is soon foi'gotten when once inside the gates; here every- 
thing is full of interest the gateways, the churches and mosques 
(all bearing traces of the Moorish occupation) and above all the 
magnificent cathedral of pure Gothic architecture, with superb 
Flemish glass in the windows. 

The streets are extraordinarily narrow and tortuous, and in 
very few is there room for two carriages to pass. The building 
on the summit of the hill is the Alcazar, or Royal Palace, lately 
converted to a military academy. 

Toledo has gradually declined since the time when Philip II. 
moved the Court to Madrid in 1560. This city, more than any 
other in Spain, is worth a lengthy visit. 

CASTILLO DE SAN CERVANTES, TOLEDO (p. 45). Not far from 
the railway station of Toledo stands the fine ruinous castle of 
Saint Cervantes, on the great rocks which form the left bank of 
the Tagus, here flowing in a gorge. It guards the Alkantarah 
Bridge, by which alone can the city be reached on this side. 
Hence its name " Servando ); (guardian) for Cervantes is a cor- 
ruption, unfortunately, and has no relation with the immortal 
creator of Don Quixote. From the castle, looking across the 
river, deep below, one has what is perhaps the best view of 
Toledo, perched upon the precipitous rocks of the right bank, 
the road zigzagging steeply up to the great Moorish city from 
the bridge foot. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR 
FUTURE WORK. 

EVERY eclipse has its own peculiar difficulties, and since in 1900 
the members of the Association were distributed into so many 
different parties, and over so great a length of country, 
it was necessarily a matter of great difficulty to arrange for 
thoroughly concerted work. Yet the success obtained has been 
on the whole certainly not less than in 1898, and much experience 
has been gained which will be valuable on future occasions. 

The results of the Indian Eclipse were briefly summarized 
under fourteen heads. Of these four related to the spectro graphic 
work of Mr. Evershed, who in the late eclipse was observing 
under the auspices of the Joint Permanent Eclipse Committee, 
and who, therefore, reports to that body and not to this Asso- 
ciation. But apart from the absence of work of the nature of 
Mr. Evershed's from the programme of the Association, its 
results in 1900 show a distinct advance on those of 1898, as will 
be seen from the following summary : 

SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 

1. A much larger number of drawings of the naked eye appear- 
ance of the corona were made than in 1898; indeed, a far larger 
number than were ever made before upon a concerted plan in any 
single eclipse. 

2. These drawings have been carefully collated and discussed 
by Mr. H. Keatley Moore; this again is a new feature in eclipse 
work. 

3. Several studies have been made of the structure of 
limited portions of the corona as seen in the field of a telescope. 
This is the first time that anything like a combined attempt 
has been made to draw the corona as seen under moderate 
telescopic power. 

4. More attention was paid to meteorological observations in 
1900 than in 1898; and Mr. Brook's report at Algiers was 
especially full and complete. 

5. A very complete seines of shadow-band observations was 
arranged for and successfully carried out in accordance with the 
programme drawn up by Mr. E. W. Johnson. 

220 



SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 221 

G. In the course of the shadow-band work Mrs. Arthur Brook 
detected a peculiar phase of the phenomenon, apparently not 
previously noted. 

7. The three following enquiries started in 1898, have been 
successfully repeated in 1900 : 

(A) The total illumination given by the corona has been 

measured in several independent ways. 

(B) The comparison of the brightness of the eclipse before 

totality with that after totality, by means of photo- 
graphs of the landscape, has been attempted at several 
stations. 

(c) The distribution of " coronium " in the corona has been 
examined by means of the prismatic opera-glass. 

8. Mr. Thorp's modification of the prismatic opera-glass has 
proved to be most successful ; his prismatic grating used before 
the object-glass proving more suitable for the purpose than a 
direct-vision prism in the eye-piece. 

9. A much larger number of photographs of the corona have 
been taken than during the Indian Eclipse ; most of these being 
secured with fixed cameras, which proved quite suitable for the 
purpose. 

10. Exposures relatively more prolonged than those given in 
India were given in several instances. 

11. The discovery made in 1898 that the synclinal curves 
terminated in rod-like rays, has been confirmed. But though 
the exposures were longer than in India, these rays could not be 
traced to anything like the same distance from the sun. 

12. Dark markings have been shown in the corona in some of 
these photographs. 

13. A kinematograph record of the eclipse has been success- 
fully made by Mr. Nevil Maskelyne. 

14. The corona has again been definitely photographed during 
the partial phase, and in a much greater amount of sunlight 
than in 1898. 

15. Increased attention was given to the detection of stars and 
planets during totality. 

16. The contact observations show distinctly that too large a 
value for the lunar diameter is used in computing the duration 
of eclipses in the British " Nautical Almanac." 

SUGGESTIONS FOE FUTURE WORK. 

A comparison of the work actually effected in this late eclipse, 
with the suggestions which concluded the report on the Indian 
Eclipse, and those which were published in the " Journal " of 
the Association, Vol. X., No. 4, leads to the gratifying conclusion 
that these suggestions were in the main well attended to, and 
with good success. The following points seem, however, to require 
emphasis : 

1. Naked eye drawings of the corona. It is very much to be 



222 



THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, 1 900. 



desired that these should always be made upon the same scale. 
Mr. Keatley Moore's suggestion that a circle drawn round a half- 
crown, should always be employed for the black body of the moon, 




BURGOS CATHEDRAL. 

Burgos, the principal city in the north of Spain, Tvas formerly the capital of 
Old Castile, and, alternately with Toledo, the Royal residence. The cathedral is 
one of the finest specimens of 13th century Gothic architecture in Spain. 

is a very simple and convenient one, and might with advantage 
be universally adopted. As to the drawing materials, Mr. Green's 
suggestion of white chalk on purplish-blue paper has not been 
bettered. 



SUMMARY OP RESULTS. 223 

2. Photographs of the corona. The suggestion that where 
equatorial mountings and driving clocks were not available, photo- 
graphs might yet be taken with fixed cameras and with short 
exposures, has been freely acted on and with good results. But 
the tendency has been in these cases to employ cameras of far 
too short focal length, and to give too long exposures. It is 
clear that where the focus is very short, and the image conse- 
quently very small, it is not possible to get much detail. The 
proper employment of such cameras would rather appear to be 
in the photographing the outer rays or streamers of the corona; 
but for this considerable exposures are required, and these involve 
clock driving. The focal length for a fixed camera should be at 
least two feet, and for f/15 the exposure should not much exceed 
half a second, with an "extra rapid " plate, and some exposures 
should certainly be taken much shorter than this. The exposures 
which are most desirable, and which are proportionately least 
frequently given, are those from l/10th to l/3rd of a second; 
remembering always that the longer the duration of totality, i.e., 
the greater the, magnitude of the eclipse, the less there will be 
of the brightest portions of the corona exposed, and consequently 
that the exposures may then be slightly increased, without risk 
and with good effect. 

3. It is much to be desired that triple-coated plates should 
be tried on photographs of ample scale, and with comparatively 
short exposures. It should not be impossible to obtain by their 
help on a single plate both the details of the bright inner corona 
and a very considerable amount of extension. Normal develop- 
ment for about eight or ten minutes might be used. 

4. The eclipse of 1901 being one of exceptionally long duration, 
is one which, so far as this feature is concerned, will be most 
favourable for the attempt to photograph the extreme outer 
extensions of the corona. We may expect that it will be essen- 
tially a dark eclipse, so much of the brightest part of the inner 
corona being covered at mid-totality. 

As, however, to see the eclipse it will be necessary to travel 
to Mauritius, the East Indian Islands, or New Guinea, and as 
for the eclipse of 1904 we should have to go further still to the 
Pacific there seems little likelihood that the Association will be 
strongly represented at any eclipse until that of August 30th, 
1905, when again the shadow track will pass across North 
America, the Atlantic, Spain, and North Africa, giving a 
totality of over 3| minutes in Spain, and passing over a city of 
such renown and so accessible as Burgos. 

Let us look forward, then, to a strong muster of our members 
along the shadow track in 1905. And may neither cloud, as in 
1896, nor plague, as in 1898, nor war, as in 1 900, intervene to 
thwart our efforts or hinder our preparations ; but, instead, may 
onr expeditions be furthered by the kindly influences of Clear 
Skies, Health, and Peace ! 



INDEX. 



ABBOT, Prof., 10. 
Acacias, 208, 211. 
Adams, Franklin, 48, 53. 
Airy, Sir George, 91. 
Alameda, 41. 
Alcaraz, 77. 
Alcazar, 181, 218. 
Aldebaran, 23, 188, 189, 190, 212. 
Algiers, 1, 2, 4, 57, 59, 62, 69, 84, 105, 
109, 114, 128, 133, 140, 142, 
154, 177, 195 

Observatory, 115, 121. 
Alhambra, 41, 218. 
Alicante, 1, 51, 77. 
Allen, Miss, 63. 

Mr., 63, 67. 

Mrs., 63, 67. 
Alvado, M., 66, 83, 84. 
Amelie de Schleswig - Holstein, 

Princess, 67. 

American Ephemeris, 81, 87. 
Andrews, W., 62, 119, 120, 128. 
" Angel's Wing," 22, 109, 112, 120. 
Animals, Effect on, 208. 
Antoniadi, E. M., 56, 58. 
Ants, 212. 

Archbishop's Palace, Algiers, 216. 
Archenhold, Herr, 5, 67. 
Arcturus, 188. 
Argamasilla, 76. 

" Argonaut," 2, 4, 57, 67, 68, 215. 
Astronomer Royal, 26, 28, 76, 140, 209. 
" Austral," 2, 18. 
Amvers, Prof. A., 87. 



BACELLAK, Dr. H. da, 26, 28, 208, 209. 
Backhouse, T. W., 2, 26, 34,93, 95, 96, 

101, 111, 154, 202. 
Bacon, Fred, 136. 

Miss, 128, 140, 152. 

Rev. J. M., 2, 6, 17, 128, 131. 
Baden-Powell, Sir George, 135. 
Baily's Beads, 55, 121, 161, 178, 179. 



Baily, Francis, 178. 

Barbosa, Sig., 211. 

Barnard, Prof. E. E., 5, 10, 15, 16, 17. 

Bats, 209, 214. 

Bees, 212, 214. 

Bel Kadir, 84. 

Benares, 154. 

Bennett, Judge, 13. 

Bergin, Prof., 31, 

Berrocalillo, 31, 76, 78. 

Betelgeux, 189, 190. 

Bevan, Mrs., 67, 96. 

" Black Drop," 180. 

Boden, E. C., 28. 

Booth, Kipling, 71. 

Bou Zarea, 61, 65, 77, 152, 156. 

Bowman, Messrs., 82. 

Brenner, Ilerr, 5, 67. 

Brightness during totality, 27, 147, 221. 

British Embassy at Madrid, 43. 

"Britannia," 41, 82. 

Broadbent, W., 19. 

Brook, Mrs. Arthur, 57, 61, 63, 166, 168, 

169, 174, 177, 221. 
C. L., 57, 61 , 63, 64, 72, 77, 154, 

168, 174, 177, 187, 192, 194, 206, 

220. 
Buckley, J., 36, 92, 147, 172, 189, 200. 

Mrs., 189. 
Bulard, M., 62. 
Burck halter, Prof., 5. 
Burgos, 222, 223. 

Burton-Brown, Col. A., 4, 68, 91, 95, 
105, 112, 160, 173, 183, 204, 205. 
Busot, 77. 
Butterflies, 214. 
Buxar, 13, 136, 154, 155, 175. 



CACERES, Governor of, 31, 34. 
Cadiz, 1. 

Caleros y Carrascosa, 43. 
Capella,'l86, 190. 

Carpenter, Capt. A., 3, 25, 40, 56, 95, 
99, 154, 170, 177. 



225 



226 



INDEX. 



Carvallio, Senor, 28. 
Castillo tie Pilos Horras, 43, 44. 
,, San Cervantes, 45, 219. 
Castor, 188. 
Cemetery Hill, 4, 57, 63, 68, 91, 173, 

204, 205. 
Centaurus, 66. 
Chambers, G-. F., 2, 26, 179, 180, 196, 

197, 205,212. 
Chromosphere, 121, 200. 
Clavius, 186. 
" Cloudland," 167. 
" Clyde," 26. 
Coad, Capt. A. J., 19. 
Coelostat, 83. 
Coleman, W., 63, 150. 
Coleridge, Samuel T., 186. 
Colour of Corona, 91, 92. 
Colours on Land, Sea, and Sky, 22, 72, 

199. 

" Comptes Eendus," 114. 
" Connaissance des Temps," 81. 
Coimel, Dr. and Mrs., 68. 
Constable, Mr., 38, 92, 148. 

Mrs., 38, 92, 148, 201. 
Contact Observations, 75, 221. 
Cook & Son, 2, 37, 62. 
Cooper, W. E., 71. 
Copeland, Dr. E., 5, 25, 48, 52, 53. 
Cordova, 51, 218. 
Coria, 76. 
Corona, 88. 

,, as seen in the Telescope, 1 14. 
Drawings of, 93. 

out of Totality, 92. 
Photographs, 109, 122, 126, 

128, 129, 131, 137,221, 223. 
Coronal Extensions, 140, 141, 221. 

Eifts, 133. 
Coronium line, 14, 145, 156, 158, 160, 

161,221. 

Cousens, Henry, 215. 
Crawford, F., 62. 
Crewdson, Mr., 67. 

Mrs., 67, 190. 

Crommclin, A. C. D., 57, 58, 62, 64, 65. 
66, 72, 75, 77, 79, 84, 87, 95, 105, 
116, 117, 121, 128, 179, 182, 206. 
Crommelin, Mrs., 57, 58. 62, 65, 79. 
Cuckoo, 214. 
" Cuzco," 25. 



DAGGE, Arthur, 211. 

Dark Markings in the Corona, 133, 

139, 221. 

Davidson, C., 140. 
Davies, Eev. C. D. P., 57, 63, 77, 118, 

128, 142, 179, 184. 
Deloncle, M., 58. 



Dent, Messrs., 82. 

Dickson, E., 71, 128, 162, 197. 

T. A., 71, 77. 
Dixon, George, 13. 

Miss, 13, 15, 156. 
Djur-Djurra Mts., 64. 
Doves, 212. 
Dow, Miss E., 209. 
Downing, Dr. A. M. W., 2, 31, 34, 76, 

158, 171, 177, 190. 
Downing, Mrs., 2, 190. 
Du Camp, E., 62, 152. 
Ducks, 209. 
Dyson, F. W., 5, 156. 



ECLIPSE Committee, 1. 
Eclipse of 840, 186. 
1140, 186. 
1560, 186. 
1715, 178. 
1820, 164. 
1836, 178. 
1870, 114, 164. 
1871, 114, 133, 1 34, 135, 136. 
1878, 114, 127, 182. 
1882, 134, 135. 
1886, 57, 151. 
1889, 115, 127. 
1893, 114, 134, 135. 
1896,14,24,53,68,88,119, 

127, 134, 136, 199. 
1898, 40, 51, 55, 67, 91, 92, 

127,135,156,140,141, 

145,147,152,154,155, 

156, 175. 
1901, 141, 223. 

1904, 223. 

1905, 223. 

Edmonds, Mr., 63, 118. 
" Egypt," 48. 

Elche, 3, 40, 48, 49, 51, 52, 54, 56, 77, 
95, 96, 103, 109, 128, 142, 148, 
152, 154, 156, 165, 174, 176, 177, 
195, 204, 206. 
Ellis, H., 62, 160. 
Eqimtorial Coude, 121. 
Escholtzias, 209, 210, 211. 
Estarreja, 2, 28, 76, 172. 
Evershed, H., 66, 75, 83. 

J., 5, 65, 66, 77, 78, 84, 156, 

158, 205, 220. 
S., 71, 140, 161, 184. 



FLAMMARION, M., 55. 
" Flash " Spectrum, 156, 162. 
Flint, Prof. A., 76, 143. 
Foster, Major Kingsley, 5, 62. 



INDEX. 



227 



Foster, Miss L., 148, 190, 201. 

Miss W., 148,190. 
Fowler, A., 5, 25, 77, 156, 158. 
Fowls, 208,212. 
French Government, 62. 
Frogs, 212. 



GAMA, Yasco da, 26. 

Gare, F., 3, 25, 40, 55, 56, 154, 170, 

177. 

Gathering Gloom, 55, 62, 152. 
Gautier, M., 62. 
Gemini, 41, 186. 
" General Chanzy," 61. 
Geoghegan, S., 31, 171, 172, 177. 
Gibbs, W. B., 2, 26, 28, 92, 162. 
Goldsmidt, 164. 
Gomez, C., 76. 
Gould, Mr., 62. 
Governor's Summer Palace, Mustapha 

Superieur, 216. 
Granada, 48, 51. 
Green, X. E., 94, 199, 222. 
Green flash, 39. 
Grifol, C., 77. 
Grubb, Kuclolf, 31. 

Sir Howard, 5, 31, 156. 



HADDEN, D., 13, 15. 
Hale, Prof., 5, 10, 156. 
Halley, Edmund, 178. 
Hansky, Prof., 86. 
Hassall, Mr.,71. 

Mrs. 71, 170. 
Hav, Mr. Drummond (Vice-Consul), 

' 4, 57, 63, 67. 
Heath, T., 5, 25, 53. 
Helium, 160. 
Henderson, Capt., 47. 
Henry the Navigator, Prince, 26. 
Hepworth, C. M., 71. 
Hilger, 162. 

Hodge, R,, 62, 67, 128, 142, 144, 146. 
Honnorat, M., 77. 
Hotel Continental, 4, 63, 64, 67, 172. 

de la Regence, 4, 57, 61, 72, 77, 
79, 116, 144, 174, 192, 194, 206. 

dc 1'Opera, 67. 

Klondyke, 8. 

Painca", 120. 
Howarth, E., 37, 38, 80, 92,96, 147, 

148, 189, 200. 
Hoyos, L. De, 76. 
Hydrogen lines, 66, 159, 160. 
Hydrographer, The, 65. 



"INDIAN ECLIPSE, 1898," 4, 21, 24, 

156, 216, 220. 
Iniguez, Signer, 32, 78. 
Integrating Photographs, 154. 
" Isis," 47, 82. 



JACKSON-SMITH, G., 36, 172. 

Janeway, Miss, 71. 

Jerte, 32, 34. 

Joly, Prof., 31. 

Johnson, E. W., 4, 40, 48, 49, 56, 77, 

154, 164, 166, 176, 177, 204, 

206, 220. 

Rev. S. J., 80. 
Johnston, A. II., 154. 
Joint Permanent Eclipse Committee, 

220. 

Jost, Dr., 26. 
Joyce, Rev. Mr., 26. 
Jupiter, 39, 41, 51, 122. 



KASBAH, 64. 

Kinematograph, 7, 128, 143, 145, 221. 

Kirkham, Mr. and Mrs., 68. 

Klumpke, Mdlle., 58, 61. 

" Knowledge," 20, 93, 133, 139. 



LA GUIDAEA, 36, 37, 92, 147, 200. 

Langley, Prof., 10, 114. 

Larbi, 84. 

Laurence, M., 83. 

Leeds Astronomical Society, 3. 

Leibnitz Mts., 79. 

Leroux, M., 152. 

Levick, J., 68. 

Ley, Clement, 167. 

Lisbon, 26. 

Lockyer, Dr., 56. 

,', Sir Norman, 25, 48, 52, 53, 

77. 

Longbottom, F. "W., 71. 
Lucas, F., 62. 



MADEID, 3, 25, 31, 76, 80, 82. 

,, Observatory, 152, 171. 
Mafeking, Relief of, 58. 
" Magdalena," 27. 
Magnesium lines, 159. 
Malmesbury, William of, 186. 
Mansel, 212. 
Manzanares, 3, 40, 42, 44, 45, 47, 76, 

81, 82, 91, 95, 99, 109, 110, 111, 

112, 154, 170, 177. 
Marco, J., 77. 
Markwick, Col. E. E., 2, 18. 25, 76, 95 

96, 101, 120. 



228 



INDEX. 



Mars, 190. 

Marsden, J. N., 173. 

Martin-Leake, Miss L., 57, 62, 115, 116, 

118, 124, 125. 
Marty, M., 62. 

Maskelyne, J. N., 7, 13, 128, 129, 142, 
143, 145, 146, 221. 
Mrs., 13. 

Mathieu, M., 58, 61. 
Matifou, Cape, 4, 57, 68, 77, 84, 91, 93, 
95, 96, 105, 109, 128, 170, 197, 204, 
206. 

Maunder, E. Walter, 4, 57, 63, 91, 96, 

126, 128, 139, 140, 141, 142, 

143, 149, 151, 152, 154, 156, 

169, 182. 

Mrs., 40, 57, 62, 63, 96, 126, 

128, 141, 142, 143, 150. 
Miss E., 57, 62, 77, 82, 168, 

173. 
Miss I., 57, 63, 73, 128, 139, 

142, 174. 
Photographs, 109, 129, 137, 

139. 

Mauritius, 223. 
Maw, W. H., 35. 

Mazafran, 65, 77, 79, 83, 84, 156, 205. 
McClure, Lady, 48, 49, 55, 128, 152. 
McEae, Miss Jessie, 48, 49, 55, 165, 

174, 177. 

Menerville, 62, 77. 

Mercury, 15, 23, 33, 36, 55, 64, 91, 93, 
94, 109, 127, 141, 149, 150, 151, 
188, 189, 190, 204. 
Mesembryanthemum Polyanthum, 

208, 209. 
Meteorological Observations, 24, 55, 

192, 220. 

Mimosa Pudica, 208, 211, 214. 
Mirabel, Marques de, 31. 
Miranda, E., 76. 
" Minneapolis," 6. 
Moon, Diameter of, 81. 
Disk of, 184. 

Shadow of, 14, 23, 36, 73, 205. 
., Thin Crescent of, 39, 56. 
Moore, H. Keatley, 3, 25, 40, 43, 47, 
56, 76, 81, 92, 93, 95, 99, 107, 113, 
154, 171, 177, 220, 222. 
Morford, Rev. A., 2, 28, 76, 92, 120, 

128, 183, 212. 
Moths, 214. 

Moye, Prof. M., 88, 92, 95, 103, 149, 
166, 174, 177, 204. 



NAGPITR, 154. 

Nautical Almanac, 19, 75, 76, 77, 78, 

80, 81, 84, 86, 87. 
Navahermosa, 76. 



Navalmoral, 2, 36, 37, 38, 76, 80, 81, 
92, 95, 96, 101, 103,109, 110, 147, 
158, 172, 176, 195, 196, 201. 

Newall, H. E., 5, 156. 

New Gruinea, 223. 

Niagara, 15. 

Meld, Mr. Krauss, 4,68,91,94, 95,96, 
105, 111, 179, 205. 

Nielsen, 28, 76, 96, 201, 206, 212. 

Nightingale, 214. 

" Nile," 1. 

" Norse King," 199. 

North Carolina, 133. 

North Western Branch, 2. 

Nova Zembla, 135. 

Nugent, Mr., 210. 



" OBSERVATORY," The, 114. 

O'Callaghan, Mr., 160. 

Oom, Senhor, 35. 

Oporto, 1, 26, 27, 196, 205, 211. 

Orient Steam Ship Co., 2, 18. 

Orion, 186. 

Orr, Miss M. A., 67, 184. 

Miss, 67. 

Ovar, 1, 2, 5, 26, 29, 76, 92, 95,96, 101, 
109, 120, 128, 140, 162, 201, 296. 
Owen, Rev. A. Brisco, 68. 
" Oxford Photometry," 188. 



PARIS EXHIBITION, 6, 56, 58. 

Partial Phase, 143. 

Peacock, 211. 

Pearce, J. E., 71, 93, 128. 

Pellen, Lieut., 26, 28. 

Petherick, Miss, 190, 200. 

Pickering, Prof., 5. 

Pigeons, 211. 

Pinhole Camera, 146. 

Pitts, Eev. T., 201. 

Plants, Effect on, 208. 

Plascencia, 2, 5, 31, 32, 33, 34, 76, 78, 

92, 93, 95, 96, 101, 103, 110, 111. 

128, 156, 158, 171, 177, 195, 196, 

202, 203, 206. 
Pleiades, 101. 

Pluvinel, Count de la Baume, 78. 
Pobladura, 154. 
Pollux, 188. 
Portugal, 26. 

Portuguese Government, 26, 28, 29. 
Prieto, F., 77. 

Princeton Observatory, 10, 11. 
Prismatic Opera-glass, 156. 
Procyon, 186. 
Puente, Sr., 76, 78. 



INDEX. 



229 



QrBTEDO, Seuor, 44. 

Quilter, Rev. Dr., 63, 185, 207. 

Quixote, Don, 41. 



RAILWAY, Pennsylvania, 7. 
Rambaut, Dr. A. A., 5, 31, 156. 
Ranyard, 22, 134. 
Rigel, 189, 190. 
Riggenbach, 62. 
Ringdoves, 208. 

Roberts, R, F., 63, 67, 77, 172, 184. 
R. R, Junr., 63, 67, 96, 15*. 
Robinson, Mr., 68. 
Rodriguez, 76. 
Ronda, 41, 48, 218. 

Royal Astronomical Society, 114, 118. 
Royal Geographical Society, 78, 82. 

Irish Academy, 2. 

Mail Steam Navigation Co., 1. 

,, Society of Dublin, 2. 



SAGITTARIUS, 66. 

Salamanca, 150. 

Sampio, G-., 213. 

Sandell Plates, 139, 145, 146. 

Santa Barbara, 34. 

Santa Pola, 5, 48, 51, 52, 56, 77. 

Saturn, 51. 

Saxon Chronicle, 186. 

Saya-Moleti, 164. 

Sazania Splendens, 208. 

Schaeberle, 34. 

Schuster, Prof. A., 151. 

Scorpio, 41, 51, 66. 

Scotchman, 210*. 

Seabroke, G-. M., 87. 

Senante, E., 77. 

Sensitive Plants, 209. 

Seville, 51, 217. 

Shackleton, W., 135. 14.",. 

Shadow, 204. 

Bands, 164, 180, 221. 
of the Earth, 39. 
Patches, 169. 
Sharp, Irwin, 2, 34, 154, 203. 
Sierra de Gredos, 37, 38, 148, 149, 200, 
Simpson, D. C., 41. 
D. G., 41. 

Sirius, 23, 186, 189, 190. 
Slade, Rev. H. P., 2, 28, 30, 76, 213. 
Slater, Miss E., 71. 

Miss J., 71. 

Miss K., 71. 
Smith, Dr. E. P., 71. 

F. Lys, 2, 26. 

Dr. Heywood, 71, 197, 204. 
Smithsonian Institution, 10, 14. 



Socuellamos, 77. 

Somes, Dr., 211. 

Sonseca, 76. 

Soutellinho, Baron de, 28, 197, 211, 

212. 

Southall, Mr., 80, 92, 200. 
Spanish Courtesy, 47. 
Sparrows, 208, 212. 
Spectrograph, 83. 
Stanley, W. F., 36, 92, 95, 96, 103, 

112, 148. 
Stars and Planets visible during the 

Eclipse, 186. 
Statham, Miss E., 71. 
Stefan, M., 62. 
Stevens, Miss C. O., 57, 63, 93, 95, 96, 

97. 
Steward, Rev. C. J., 148, 172, 190, 196, 

200. 

Stokes, Dr., 36, 80, 147, 189, 200. 
Struve, Dr. L., 86. 
Suggestions for Future Work, 221. 
Summary of Results, 220. 
Swallows, 212, 214, 215. 
Swift, Lewis, 182. 
Swifts, 215. 
Sy, M., 77. 
Synclinal Groups, 22, 126, 127, 221. 



TACCHINI, Prof. P., 5, 62. 

" Tagus," 1, 2, 40, 48. 

Tait, W., 197, 208, 211. 

Talavera, 2, 3, 39, 76, 92, 148, 201. 

Tauri, s, 188, 190, 191. 

v, 190. 
Tavares, Senhor, 28. 
" Theseus," 25, 48, 52, 53. 
Thompson, Mr., 68. 
Thorold, Miss E., 71. 
Thorp, Prof. T., 62, 156, 157, 160, 

161, 221. 
Toledo, 218. 
Tramblay, G., 77. 
Trappist Monastery, 217. 
Trepied, 77, 115. 
Trouvelot, 140. 

Turner, Prof. H. H., 5, 62, 77, 91, 139. 
Twilight Illumination, 153. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT, 7. 
Usher & Cole, 65. 



VADSO, 1, 53, 119. 
Vallack, Mr., 63. 
Valle, J., 76. 



230 



INDEX. 



Ventosa, Sr., 82, 47, 76, 78, 82, 171. 
Venus, 15, 20, 24, 35, 41, 55, 64. 67, 

94, 188, 189, 190. 
Vignoles, Mr. E. B., 71, 128. 

Miss L., 71. 
Vigo, 154. 
Villa Nova, 27. 



WADESBOROUGH, 2, 6, 8, 9, 13, 76, 128, 

129, 131, 140, 142, 143, 147, 152, 

156. 

Wadsworth, Prof. F. L. O., 145. 
Ward, Miss, 71. 
Warre, Mr. Amyas, 28, 205. 
,, Mrs. Amyas, 28. 
Mr. John", 28. 
"Waters' Equatorial, 63. 
Weir, T., 34, 36, 76, 78, 92, 95, 103. 

128, 196, 206. 
Wellington, Duke of, 41. 
Wesley, W. H., 5, 61, 96, 109, 110, 

112, 114, 115, 116, 119, 121, 126, 

133, 137, 140, 151. 
Whichello, Dr., 68, 71, 109. 



Whitmell, C. T., 3, 36, 37, 39, 75, 76, 
81, 95, 101, 147, 158, 160, 172, 
176, 189, 200, 201. 
Willis, Mrs. Colman, 48, 53. 

Miss, 49, 55. 
Miss E., 49, 55. 

Mr. E. C., 48, 49, 55, 128, 142, 

146, 165, 174, 177. 
Mr. J. H., 49. 55, 176, 196. 
Williams Bay, 15. 
Wilson, W. E., 5, 31. 
Wolfer, M., 62. 
Woolston, Miss, 13. 
Wyles, H., 77. 
Wyllie, W. L., 56. 



YERKES Observatory, 10, 11, 15, 151, 

153, 159. 
Young, Prof. C. A., 3, 5, 9, 10, 14, 78, 

147, 156. 



ZERALDA, 84. 
Zodiacal Light, 51. 




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